Some Salient Features of the Narratives in Kumarapālapratibodha

Published: 29.02.2012
Updated: 30.07.2015

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Some Salient Features of the Narratives in Kumarapālapratibodha

A Research Paper presented in a National Seminar organized by the Department of Sanskrit and Prakrit Languages on 'Kathā in Sanskrit and Prakrit Literature', during 17th-19th February 2012

Introduction:

There is absolutely no need to elaborate the richness of narrative literature in Prakrit, in this scholarly assembly. At least for 26 hundred years, the stream of Prakrit stories, narratives, fables, tales and analogies is continuously flowing. Attempts of subject-wise and form-wise classification are found in Prakrit literature itself. If we try to analyze it chronologically, we can classify the story literature likewise:

  1. Narratives in Ardhamāgadhī Canons like Jñātādharmakathā and Antagaadaśā.
  2. Narratives in Ancient commentarial literature like Niryukti, Cūrṇi and Bhāṣyas.
  3. Narratives in Sanskrit commentaries like Sukhabodhā, Āvaśyakaīkā etc.
  4. Collection of narratives like Vasudevahiṇḍi, Mūlaśuddhiprakaraa etc.
  5. Long narratives like Kuvalayamālā, Samarādityakathā etc.
  6. Didactic narratives like Upadeśapada, Dharmopadeśamālā etc.
  7. Secular narratives like Dhurtākhyāna, Līlāvatī etc.

1. The Date, Place, Nature and Status of Kumārapālapratibodha:

The author, Somaprabha, is a well-known Jain learned man. He composed Kumārapālapratibodha (abbreviated in the following as KumāPra) in savat 1241 (or A.D. 1195), i.e. only 11 years after the death of King Kumārapāla. The work KumāPra contains a general description of the teachings in the Jain religion given from time to time by the Jain preceptor Hemacandra to Kumārapāla, the illustrious Cālukya King of Gujarat and also of the manner in which, after getting these lessons, the King gradually got completely converted to Jainism.

Besides KumāPra, three other works of Somaprabha are available. One of these is the 'Sumatinātha-caritra'. It describes the life of Sumatinātha, the 5th Tīrthaṅkara of the Jain Religion. Like KumāPra, it is also written mainly in the Prakrit language and like it, it also contains legends and stories explaining the tenets of Jainism. His another Sanskrit work is 'Sūkti-muktāvali'. It consists of hundred verses of a miscellaneous nature. It is written after the style of Bhartṛhari's 'Nīti-śataka'. His third work is 'Satārtha-kāvya'. It gives full evidence of his unexcelled command over the Sanskrit language. KumāPra seems to be the last work of Somaprabha.

KumāPra is mainly written in Jain Māhārāṣtrī Prakrit. But a few stories in the last chapter are written in Sanskrit and some portions are in Apabhraṁśa language as well. From this it is evident that our author was equally proficient in these three languages. The composition of the work is very simple and the language is quite plain and unsophisticated.

2. Classification of the Narratives in KumāPra:

If we cast a comprehensive glance at the subject matter and sources of these narratives, we can compare it with a gorgeous variegated bouquet of flowers. Some of the flowers are fragrant, some are colorful and some are only fillers. Put still in totality, the bouquet is attractive. The author Somaprabha has skillfully avoided the monotony in the subject matter to keep the interest of the readers. We can classify the stories in the following manner:

i. Canonical Narratives:

Nāyādhammakahā is the 6th Aṅga of the canon, which is written in Ardhamāgadhī based on stories and metaphorical narratives. Somaprabha has not chosen a single theme from this treatise. We find only two narratives based on the lesser known canons viz. (a) the story of king Pradeśī included in the upāṅga called Rājapraśnīya (KumāPra pp.146-151) and (b) the story of the destruction of Dvārikā (pp.92-105), partly included in the aṅga canon, called Antagaḍadasāo. The style of presentation is different and the details given are quite interesting.

ii. Mahābhārata Narratives:

The celebrated epic Mahābhārata is famous as a treasure of ākhyānas and upākhyānas. It is a spring well of the whole Indian literature. Somaprabha also has taken resort of this great epic in four of his stories viz. 'द्यूते नलकथा' (pp. 47-76); 'मद्यपाने द्वारिकादाहयादवकथा ' (pp. 92-105); 'तपसि रुक्मिणीकथा '(pp. 253-259) and 'शाम्ब-प्रद्युम्नकथा ' (pp. 259-268). In order to fit with the Jain environment, Somaprabha has done certain changes in the Mahābhārata version of the stories. Of course his process of Jainification is not totally new because the model of Jainification is found in Jain narrative literature right from the sixth century onwards.

The focus of the above mentioned narratives is also different in KumāPra. Nalakathā and Dvārikā-dāha-kathā emphasize the bad effects of the vyasanas viz. 'dyūta' and 'madyapāna'. Rukmiṇī is presented as the idol of severe penances in रुक्मिणीकथा . In शाम्ब-प्रद्युम्नकथा, the roles of Rukmiṇī, Satyabhāmā and Nārada are displayed in altogether new manner. Light and shadow play of the human emotions like jealously, shrewdness, diplomacy, hatred, wittiness and so on is explicitly seen in the Mahābhārata narratives of Somaprabha.

iii. Traditional Narratives and New Creation:

For at least two thousand and six hundred years, Jain monks and nuns are wandering on foot throughout India and resting for four holy months, delivering religious preaching to the householders. They take resort of the stories, narratives, folk-tales etc. to attract the common people towards the philosophical tenets. The rich treasure of stories is found in Niryuktis, Bhāṣyas and Cūrṇis in compact form. Seeds of the traditional narratives are particularly found in Āvaśyaka-niryukti, Vyavahāra-bhāṣya and Niśītha-cūrṇi. Haribhadra, the literary all-rounder collected all the major stories in nutshell form and incorporated it in his Āvaśyaka-ṭīkā and Upadeśapada. Paumacariya of Vimalasūri, Vasudevahiṇḍi and Sukhabodhā-ṭīkā are the rich mines of traditional narratives.

Out of the 57 stories in KumāPra approximately 11 stories are taken from the traditional stock. [1] Though the themes are not new, Somaprabha has successfully revived the narratives by the touch of his proficiency in classical Prakrit.

Around thirteen stories, which are newly constructed by Somaprabha, are in true sense his own creation. Among them, the most interesting stories are (a) The story of Caṇḍā and Ṭauka (p. 304) is a dhūrtakathā; (b) a story based on the interaction between a father-in-law and a daughter-in-law is a story with family background (शीलवतीदृष्टान्त, p. 220); (c) a story of Guṇadhara and Gomatī, is based on the proverb - 'tit for tat' (p. 350) and (d) Nāginīkathā is a story of a flirt woman enjoying extra-marital relations (p. 407). These stories are basically vratakathās but the plot, the characters and happenings are so nicely woven and neatly presented in lucid style, that one can call them as 'masterpieces'.

Nearly ten to twelve stories based on 'vrata-māhātmya' are really stereo-type, boring and insipid in all sense. Somaprabha's failure in the art of narration is explicitly seen in these stories. [2]

3. The Salient Features of KumāPra:

A. KumāPra: A Specimen of Classical Prakrit

When we consider the post canonical Prakrit Jaina literature from language point of view, we can divide it as 'Classical Prakrit' and 'Sanskritized Prakrit'. [3] This division can be applied not only to Jain Māhārāṣtrī but also to Māhārāṣtrī employed by non-Jaina authors. The anthology Gāthāsaptaśatī is quoted as a specimen of Classical Prakrit while Kaṁsavaho, Gauḍavaho and Srīcinha-kāvya are the specimens of artificial or Sanskritized Prakrit. Therefore it is utterly necessary to designate the language of KumāPra, whether it is 'classical' or 'artificial'.

When we comprehensively examine the stylistic peculiarities of KumāPra, we come to the conclusion that it is certainly a piece of classical Jaina Māhārāṣtrī, due to the below mentioned points:

  • Easy, lucid and running prose in Prakrit with occasional use of Sanskrit and Apabhraṁśa verses.
  • Samasyāpūrtis, Prahelikās etc. cited by the female characters are invariably quoted in Apabhraṁśa.
  • Absence of long compounds and usage of small compounds having maximum three constituents of course with very few exceptions of 'dvandva-samāsa'.
  • Profuse use of Deśya words, Dhātvādeśas and Proverbs.

This point needs a little elaboration to understand the intrinsic nature of Somaprabha's language.

i. (a) Nouns (with Marathi equivalents and meaning):

पारद्धि

p. 27.30 (M - पारध )

-

hunting

पंखुडिआ

p. 29.6 (M - पंख )

-

wing of birds, fins of a fish

णिडाल

p. 34.15 (M - णिढळ )

-

forehead

गोस

p. 42.14

-

early morning

बाइया and अक्का

p. 87.13 and p. 207.26 (M - बाई, अक्का)

-

a senior chief female supervisor of courtesans

कावडी

p. 121.8 (M - कावड)

-

a device to carry water

खड्डा

p. 192.17 (M - खड्डा; H - गड्डा)

-

hole, pit, ditch

मिंड

p. 192.3 (M - मेंडा)

-

ram

गग्गरी

p. 215.23 (M - घागर)

-

water-pot

चोज्ज

p. 231.8 (M - चोज, आश्चर्य)

-

wonder, miracle

छिक्का

p. 202.10 (M - शिंक)

-

sneezing

चउहट्ट

p. 237.14 (M - चव्हाटा)

-

meeting place

चोप्पड-कापड

p. 172.13 (M - कापडचोपड )

-

clothes and some other things

मामग

p. 241.6 (M - मामा)

-

maternal uncle

We can extend the list of Deśya nouns by the words like विट्टाल, झंपय, झामल, चंचा, चप्पुडिया etc.

(b) Proper nouns like छड्डअ 396.9, टउय 306.6, रच्छुग 306.5, दामन्नक 28.13, लच्छी etc. throws light on the regional colloquial vocabulary of contemporary rural life.

ii. Verbs (Some are treated as Dhātvādeśas in Hem. [Gr.]):

बोल्ल

p. 28.18 (M - बोलणे)

-

to speak

तडफुड

p. 29.4 (M - तडफडणे)

-

to toss and turn, to flounder

ढक्क

p. 97.12 (H - ढँकना)

-

to cover

छड्ड

p. 223.4 (M - सोडणे H - छोडना)

-

to leave

निलुक्क

p. 252.1 (H - लुका-छिपी )

-

to hide

छज्ज

p. 216.26 (M - साजणे, शोभणे)

-

to suit, to befit

विढव

p. 198.27 (M - वाढवणे H - बढाना )

-

to get, to acquire

कुरुमाल

p. 44.28 (M - कुरवाळणे )

-

to fondle, to pet

iii. Past Passive Participles:

चिंचइअ

p. 120.13

-

decorated

ढक्किय

p. 97.12

-

covered

गुंडिय


-

anointed

etc.



iv. Adjectives:

भल्लिम

p. 108.3 (H - भला)

-

gentle, good

चंग, चंगिम

p. 131.29 (M - चंगला H - चंगा)

-

good, nice

v. Through some of the phrases used by the author, one can relish the rustic flavor and rhythm of sub-dialects.

  • जित्तिउ पुज्जइ पंगुरणु तित्तिउ पाउ पसारि p. 111.30; One should spread one's feet according to the length of his blanket. M - अंथरुण (पांघरूण ) पाहून पाय पसरावे .
  • रंधइ खंडइ पीसइ दलइ जलं वहइ कुणइ सव्वं पि p.239.8; The lady was doing all types of household works like cooking, cutting, pounding, grinding and carrying waterpots.
  • ता ओसहीओ हिमपव्वयम्मि उस्सीसए सप्पो p.234.1; The medicinal shrubs are in the Himalayan mountains while the serpent is near one's head.
  • When one reads the phrase 'जं दिन्नं तं गहियं', it reminds the specimen of Māhārāṣtrī noted in Kuvalayamālā viz. दिण्णल्ले, गहियल्ले - A.N. Upadhye, intro. p. 83.

The above mentioned chosen examples are quite enough to prove that Somaprabha's Jain Māhārāṣtrī exhibits the peculiarities of classical Prakrit. It is really creditable because Somaprabha's other three treatises exhibit that he is a through Sanskritist, logician and grammarian.

Hemacandra's contribution to Sanskrit and Prakrit literature is recognized from many angles. His Deśī-nāma-mālā is really unique in the field of dictionary-making. It is noteworthy that Somaprabha's Deśya words and Dhātvādeśa's are easily traceable in Deśī-nāma-mālā. This fact confirms that Somaprabha has employed the contemporary colloquial language in his narratives to bring out the desired impact on common people.

B. Characters Comprising All Layers of the Society

This characteristic is true about the Prakrit narratives in general and it applies to KumāPra in particular.

Merchant class of the society is represented in almost every narrative. Three layers of the merchant class are mentioned separately as Ibhya, Śreṣṭin and Vaṇik. The daily and occasional happenings in the life of merchant class are described with minute details since the Śrāvakas and Śrāvikas comprise a large part among the followers of Jain religion in the contemporary society of Gujarat.

We can enumerate the other male characters as a king, prince, chief minister, minister, councilor, different persons appointed in the royal court like court-poet, ambassador, messenger, spy, soldier, police-chief (koṭṭavāla-kotavāla), village-accountant (talavara-talāhī), aggregate of five juries (pañca), servant, slave, village-head, householders of different classes, wandering ascetics-monks-sages, tribal, professionals like teacher, doctor, confectioner, farmer, gardener, fisherman, milkman, cowherd wrestler, chieftain of cowherds, painter, artist, elephant-driver, charioteer, bullock-driver, fortune-teller, snake-charmer, magician, gambler, potterman, hunter, washerman, goldsmith, barber, evil-speller, monkey-carrier, juggler (gāruḍī), grave-digger (omba), acrobat (ombārī), group of wicked rascals or vagabonds, all kinds of thieves like a robber, house-breaker, plunderer, filcher and also the chief of the settlement of thieves (cora-pallī-pati).

All the above-mentioned characters possess important roles in the stories and help to carry forward the momentum of the narrative by increasing the interest of the reader.

The world of womenfolk is none the less interesting in KumāPra. Female characters are found in the role of a queen, chief-queen, courtesan (gaikā), harlot (veśyā), supervisor of harlots (bāiyā, akkā), step-mother, co-wife, female ascetic, nun as well as pseudo nun, female messenger, female slave, fortune-teller, acrobat, snake-charmer, gardener and in many other vocations.

The picture of the society reflected in KumāPra, really provides a rich cultural data fathoming the genuine way of life, of the masses.

C. Woman-Focused Narratives

We cannot make a separate class of stories as 'woman-focused stories' because these stories can be included in the above mentioned classification. But when we focus our attention on the female characters of the narratives, we come to know instantaneously that womankind reflected in the narratives is one of the salient feature of KumāPra.

Eight narratives are named after women (लक्श्मीकथा p. 151; चन्द्रनबालाकथा p. 181; शीलवतीकथा p. 220; मृगावतीकथा p. 230; ताराकथा p. 237; जयसुसुन्दरीकथा p. 243; रुक्मिणीकथा p. 253; नागिनीकथा p.407). In six narratives out of 57 female characters have no important role to play (अमरसिंहकथा p. 23; पद्मोत्तरकथा p. 129; द्वरीकादहनकथा p. 92; गोधनेकथा p. 402; सागरकथा p. 415; शकटाल-वररुचिकथा pp. 447-450). Barring these six stories, in each and every story, leading role are played by women as an infant, child, unmarried girl, recently married young woman, middle-aged woman and as an old woman. We find housewives, courtesans, harlots, nuns, queens, princesses, servants, wet-nurses, slaves, beggars and women doing small occupations. Numerous references of female deities are noteworthy.

We should give full marks to Somaprabha because he had cautiously avoided one sided picture of a woman. Some of his female characters are noble, exalted, generous, liberal and loyal but some of them are mean-minded, quarrelsome, vicious, miserly, jealous and self-willed. Many of the ladies are neither too good nor too bad. The famous topic of 'śtrī-nindā' is not high lightened in any of the narratives.

Somaprabha's feministic approach can be seen from the below mentioned observations:

  • As we have seen, the householders of the merchant class are dealt with in almost every narrative. The references of their long business tours occur frequently. 'The sexual life of their wives' is a family problem as well as a social issue. Somaprabha has grasped this problem and tries to solve it in his own way (पतिभक्तौ जयसुन्दरीकथ p. 244; मायायां नागिनीकथा p. 407; शीले ताराकथा p. 237).
  • Normally, 'sva-dāra-satoa-vrata' is interpreted from the viewpoint of a male śrāvaka but Somaprabha mentions specially that, “the lady so and so accepted the vow of 'para-purua-tyaga'. The feministic interpretation of the vow, given by Somaprabha is really noteworthy. [4]

Some brilliant female characters created by Somaprabha are likewise:

  • a tribal woman, who was expert in arguments and debates (p. 403.30).
  • a Brahmin's wife and daughter-in-law, who were well-versed in samasyāpūrti (p. 390-391).
  • a normal housewife who understands the language of animals and birds (p. 221.1).
  • a princess ruling a country in a royal costume like a king (p. 392.5-6).
  • a female servant telling a truth to his master to remove his doubts about his wife (p. 158.5-6)

We can conclude from these instances that Somaprabha's unbiased and just attitude towards women is reflected in the collection of the narratives viz. Kumārapāla-pratibodha.

D. Beliefs, Faiths and Rituals in KumāPra

When we grasp the strata of the society reflected in KumāPra, we can understand the beliefs and rituals of the commoners in better manner. Some of the examples are noted down bellow:

  • The protecting deity of the city (nagara-devatā) reveals herself before the prince and offers enchanted water to sprinkle over the five caused by the evil spirits. [5]
  • Because of the step-mother's witchcraft, the son was affected by dropsy. [6]
  • A lady called Magala died and became a vyantarī. She created a magical display (indrajāla). [7]
  • Due to black magic (Mar. Bhānāmati) on inauspicious fire broke in Ujjayini. Prince Abhayakumāra dispelled the bad fire and evil spirits by pulling sacred fire. [8]
  • The vow of begging a child to a deity and the fulfillment of the vow by naming the child after that deity is seen in several narratives. [9]

The growing influence of lower deities like Yakṣas, Yakṣiṇīs, Śāsanadevatās and Kuladevatās can be observed in many narratives. (इलादेवी, इलापुत्रकथा p. 298; चक्रेश्वरी, हरिविक्रमकथा p. 344; अच्युता, नरदेवकथा p. 392) The philosophical background of Jainism does not allow the interference of these deities but in their daily routine. But it is seen that Jainas observe these deity-based rituals due to the vicinity of their Hindu brethren. As noted down by Dr. A.N. Upadhye, these popular practices finally find a definite role in the temple art of Jainas after 10th century onwards. Thus the references of lower deities in KumāPra are important from the stand point of socio-cultural history of Jainas.

E. The Motifs Used to Accelerate the Happenings

The story writers employ certain motifs to accelerate the multiple happenings by raising the curiosity of the reader which compels him to go forward up to the end of the story. If we analyze such instances in the narratives of Somaprabha, we come to know that some of the motifs are based on the philosophical concepts of Jainism, some are the contemporary social beliefs while some others are purely 'kavisaketaś'.

  1. The narration of the previous births and future births by a kevalin is very common in these narratives and practically a part of each and every story of KumāPra. We have to admit that the frequent usage of this motif brings dullness and boredom to the reader from the literary point of view. For example, in Siha-vyāghra-kathā (pp. 397-402) last sixteen verses are dedicated to the narration of many previous births, which compels the reader to omit that part of the story. The total impact of this interesting story gets bruised due to this lengthy ending. One other motif is used twice by Somaprabha, in which the dead person takes birth in his own house in animal-form. [10] It is observed that the same motif is used in Vasudevahiṇḍi. Jātismaraa is a peculiar concept in Jainism, in which a person or even a tiryañca remembers his previous birth (p. 23) in certain conditions. This motif is used in the story of Valkalacīrī (p. 284), Godhana (p. 402) and in so many other narratives. The firm belief in Karma-doctrine is seen through many dialogues. For example, in Kundakathā (p.42) princess Devinī tells his father that she is enjoying all the pleasures and wealth due to her own Karmas.
  2. Supernatural powers of Yakṣas, Rākṣasas and Vidyādharas are exhibited in numerous stories. [11] In Tārakathānaka (p. 118) the unique motif of a miraculous medicine is used which causes gender transformation. In the famous story of Udayana and Vāsavadattā the mechanically mobile elephant is referred to, which is of course borrowed from the famous Sanskrit play Svapnavāsavadattam.
  3. Changing the words in a letter; getting a pot full of golden coins while digging a farm; a long journey undertaken to acquire wealth; usage of mantras and rituals to convert less valuable metals into gold; releasing a horse or elephant to select the heir for the kingdom; a confusion created due to the identical twins - these are some of the popular motifs employed by Somaprabha to enhance the interest of the narratives.

We may conclude that many of the motifs employed by Somaprabha are very common and only few of them are totally unique. The repeatedly used motif of pūrvabhavas cause distaste in the reader and deprives the stories from being the classics.

F. The Historical and Geographical References

The historical details found in KumāPra can be divided into three categories:

  1. the details of the ancient history based on legends.
  2. the details of the contemporary history of Gujarat during Cālukya dynasty.
  3. the Guru-śiya-paramparā of Somaprabhasūri.

i) The ancient history of Magadha is found in Jain tradition right from 7th century A.D. upto 14th century A.D., of course in a legendary form. Somaprabha has incorporated the references of Nanda, Śakaṭāla, Stūlībhadra, Śrīyaka, Vararuci, Candragupta, Cāṇakya, Bindusāra, Aśokaśrī, Kuṇāla and Samprati in two lengthy narratives viz. गुरुभक्त-संप्रतिनृपकथा (pp. 166-174) and स्थूलिभद्रकथा (pp. 443-461). It is observed that no new information is added by Somaprabha from the historical point of view. It is practically the Jain Māhārāṣtrī and Apabhraṁśa version of the concerned Sanskrit narratives written by Hemcandra in his Pariṣiṣṭa-parva.

ii) The first Prastāva of KumāPra is dedicated to the contemporary history of Gujarat. Muni Jinavijaya has aptly noted in his English introduction to KumāPra that “the history of the two great personages (i.e. Kumārapāla and Hemacandra) in the present work is not only as much as, but is even less than their history given in such smaller and later works, as Prabhāvaka-carita and Prabandha-cintāmai.” [12]

iii) The 'Gurvāvali' given at the end is important from the point of the history of Tapāgaccha, a lineage of Śvetāmbaras which has contributed a lot to Jain literature.

All the important cities, mountains and places of pilgrimage in Gujarat are noted down at the end of the introduction of Muni Jinavijaya. A curious reader can go through it very easily. It is really creditable to Somaprabha that due to the detailed geographical data, given by him, we can co-relate the modern names of the places very easily, (viz. खंभ-तीर्थम् (p. 21) is modern खंभात्; उज्जयन्तरिरि and रैवतगिरि (p. 18) is modern गिरनारपर्वत; पालित्ताणं (p. 179) is modern पालीताणुं; तारापुरम् (p. 442) is modern तारंगास्थानम् etc.).

Conclusive Remarks

In Jaina tradition 'narration' or 'story-telling' is not mentioned as a separate 'art'. In the extensive list of 72 or 64 arts found in Jaina treatises, 'the art of narration' is not enumerated. Narrations, fables, tales, allegories are always treated as an instrument or device for imparting religious teachings effectively. This fact is true about KumāPra, in every sense. The ethical and philosophical tenets comprise the central core of a story. Necessary details are woven around in narration form. The vows of a lay-votary (śrāvaka), its transgressions (aticāra), the passions (kaāyas), the bad effects of seven bad habits (sapta vyasanas) and the good effects of the religio-ethical virtues are described at length in almost each of the story. The chief characters of the stories listen to these sermons patiently and get overwhelmed with savega, nirveda and accept the partial vows or embrace initiation.

When a reader knows the certain end of the story beforehand, his interest becomes lesser and lesser - this is the natural limitation of 'being an excellent narrative'. The stereo-type beginning full of the names of the region, country, city, king, queen etc. compels a reader to omit that part of the story, with a great distaste.

But in spite of all these weak-points, we have to give 'three stars' out of five, to the narratives of KumāPra for the following reasons:

  1. It provides us a specimen of classical Jaina Māhārāṣtrī of the 12th century A.D. with a vocabulary full of deśya words, dhātvādeśas, popular idioms and sayings.
  2. The religio-social interactions and happenings among all the layers of the Indian society are reflected in the narratives. These details are definitely different from the contemporary Sanskrit and Pali literature.
  3. The data of historical persons and places documented in KumāPra, might have inspired the 'prabandha' literature viz. Prabandha-kośa, Vividha-tīrthakalpa, Prabhāvaka-carita written in 14th century A.D. by the Jain authors. All the eminent Indologists and Orientalists took notice of the prabandha literature of Jainas while reconstructing the social history of medieval India.
  4. The feministic approach of Somaprabha while depicting the womenfolk is really noteworthy.

Thus we can conclude that though very few stories of KumāPra can be designated as 'excellent' from the literary point of view, still it holds an honorable position in the 'collection of Prakrit narratives' (Kathāsaṁgrahas) by providing rich socio-cultural details in classical Jaina Māhārāṣtrī.

Bibliography

  • आवश्यकसूत्र (with Niryukti and Haribhadra's Commentary): आगमोदयसमिति , मेहसाणा १९१६
  • भारतीय संस्कृति में जैन धर्म का योगदान : डॉ. हीरालाल जैन , मध्यप्रदेश शासन साहित्य परिषद् , भोपाल , १९६२
  • Kumārapāla-pratibodha: Somaprabhācārya, Ed. Muni Jinavijaya, Oriental Institute Vadodara, 1992
  • निशीथविशेषचूर्णी : अमरमुनि , कन्हैयालाल 'कमल', सन्मति ज्ञानपीठ , आगरा , १९५७ - १९६०
  • प्राकृत साहित्य का इतिहास : डॉ. जगदीशचन्द्र जैन , चौखम्बा विद्याभवन , वाराणसी , १९८५
  • उत्तराध्ययन (सुखबोधा टीका ): नेमिचन्द्र , सं. जयंतविजय , कमलसंयम , आगरा , १९२३ - १९२७
  • वसुदेवहिण्डि (प्रथम खण्ड ): संघदसगणि , जैन आत्मानंद सभा , भावनगर , १९३०

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Sources

Compiled by PK

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  1. A.N. Upadhye
  2. Aticāra
  3. Aṅga
  4. Cūrṇi
  5. Environment
  6. Gujarat
  7. Haribhadra
  8. Hemacandra
  9. JAINA
  10. Jaina
  11. Jainism
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  13. Kevalin
  14. Magadha
  15. Mahābhārata
  16. Muni
  17. Nirveda
  18. Niryukti
  19. PK
  20. Pali
  21. Prakrit
  22. Ram
  23. Sanskrit
  24. Sumatinātha
  25. Tiryañca
  26. Tīrthaṅkara
  27. Upāṅga
  28. Vadodara
  29. kaṣāyas
  30. Śrāvakas
  31. Śvetāmbaras
  32. भावनगर
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