Jain Legend : Jain Dharma ka Maulika Itihasa (2) ► Sectarian Differences In Jain Order (III)

Posted: 26.05.2016

Ācārya Mānatuṃga

After Ārya Māna Deva, Ārya Mānatuṃga was considered as a very influential ācārya. He was the son of a merchant Dhana Deva, a Brahmin Ksatriya and an inhabitant of Varanasi. Once, some Digambara Jain monks camped in Varanasi. Listening to their sermons, Mānatuṃga got averted from the luxuries of worldly life and took initiation from Cārukīrti. Later on, he took initiation into Śvetāmbara sect from Ācārya Ajita Siṃha.

Once, King Harṣa impressed by the power of knowledge of the scholars Mayūra and Bāṇa, invited Ācārya Mānatuṃga to his court with due respect.

Ācārya Mānatuṃga reached the royal palace. The king offered humble salutations and said, "O Reverend Soul! How great are these Brahmins! One Brahmin cured his leprosy by worshipping the Sun god, whereas the other (Bāṇa) regained his severed arms and legs by worshipping goddess Caṇdikā. If you too have any such magical powers, please demonstrate them to me."

Ācārya Mānatuṃga replied, "O King! We are not householders who entertain the kings to earn cash and kind for the sake of children and wives. We work only for the ethical and spiritual upliftment of the public.

The annoyed King ordered, "Chain him and throw him into a dungeon".

The soldiers chained him with 44 iron chains, threw him into a dark dungeon and locked him. Ācārya Mānatuṃga did not show even the slightest agitation; instead he impromptu started praying the primordial Lord Vṛṣabha Deva.The said prayer became the famous Bhaktāmara Stotra. No sooner did he complete the 44th sloka of the stotra, the locks and the doors opened automatically and his 44 chains broke open and he appeared in the royal court.

Impressed and delighted by his practice of detachment and penance, and the brilliance of his miraculous power, King Harṣa became an ardent devotee of Ācārya Mānatuṃga. The 'Bhaktāmara Stotra' composed by

Ārya Mānatuṃga is recited even today in each and every house of Jain community with extreme faith and devotion.

The Bhaktāmara Stotra has totally 48 Stanzas.  At some places it is mentioned that on the recitation of the 46th stanza all bondages broke. At different times the staunch devotees have constructed yantra & mantra on each stanza of this stotra. Many miracles are famous from the use of Bhaktāmara Stotra.

The Bhayahara Stotra is also considered to be composed by Ācārya Mānatuṃga. After serving the Jain Order for a very long time, appointing Gunkar his able and worthy disciple as ācārya of the congregation, observing the vow of Saṃlekhanā, Ācārya Mānatuṃga attained heaven in V.N. 758.

Rising of Gupta dynasty during the tenure of epochal-ācārya Ārya Siṃha

The war of independence initiated by the Bhāraśivas was continued by the Vākāṭakas with improved strategies and was finally concluded victoriously by the Guptas, who wielded power on Afghanistan, Kashmir, Nepal, Assam, Bengal and the coastal lands of South-Western area; thus brought every nook and corner of India under one roof, providing political unity and gave a strong and centralised administration to our country.

The founder of Gupta dynasty was Śrīgupta. According to the accounts and memoirs of the Chinese traveller it sing, who visited India in 672 AD, Śrīgupt came to power in 190 AD and his empire extended from Nālandā to the present Mushirabad.

The famous historian Radha Kumud Mukherjī states that the reigning period of Śrīgupta was from 240 to 280 AD, and not 190 AD. After the death of Śrīgupta, his son Ghaṭotkaca succeeded the Magadha throne in V.N. 807 and his son Vikramāditya became the ruler somewhere before V.N. 846, after the demise of his father.

Ārya Skandila 21st discourse-ācārya

In the lineage of scholars (Vācakas), Ārya Skandila is regarded as very influential and a versatile genius. His commendable service to the Jain Order of protecting the knowledge of the canons, amidst extremely difficult times will be written in golden letters in the history of Jainism.

Skandila was born to a Brahmin couple, Meghratha and Rupasenā. When she was expecting Skandila, Rupasenā saw the moon in her dream. So he was named 'Somaratha' after the moon. His parents were followers of Jainism from the beginning. On one occasion during his spiritual wanderings, Ācārya Brhmadwīpaka Siṃha arrived at Mathura. Listening to his religious discourse, Somaratha took initiation and relinquishing his family name, he was given the name 'Skandila'. Serving his Guru, he learnt and attained the knowledge of the 11 Aṃgas and Pūrvas. Recognising him to be fit, his Guru proclaimed him as his successor. Accordingly, when Ārya Siṃha attained heavenly abode, he was appointed as the scholar-preceptor of the congregation. Some authors confused Śāṃdilya with Skandila and considered both to be one and the same; nevertheless, Ācārya Skandila and ten Pūrvadhara Ācārya Śāṃdilya are two different personalities.

The tenure of Skandila as ācārya was approximately from V.N. 823 to 840. That period was very critical. On one side there was a severe discord in Sourastra between the Jains and Buddhists, and on the other, in Central India a dreadful war was in progress between the Guptas and Huṇas. Making the situation worse, a dreadful 12 yearlong famine broke out during that time. In such a disastrous situation the number of Jain monks in general and the scholars of scriptures in particular, gradually decreased and became very insignificant. As a result, the Jain literature, scriptures, canons, etc were on the verge of extinction. When after the famine, the conditions restored to normalcy, Ārya Skandila convened a council in Mathura between V.N. 830 and 840, inviting all the monks, Śramaṇas of the North, et al. for recital of canons.

Under the guidance of Ācārya Skandila, the canons were recited and the expositions were collected and arranged, which are being used even today by the congregations. As this event of recital took place in Mathura, it is known as 'Māthuri Vācanā' and as Ācārya Skandila explained the meaning in the form of Anuyogas, it is called as 'Anuyog of Skandilācārya'.

Synchronous with the council at Mathura, which was organised under the leadership of Skandilācārya, for the recension of the canons and Scriptures, almost at the same time Ācārya Nāgārajuna convened a council of monks of the South at Vallabi and tried to collect and compile the Āgamas.

As the two councils for the recension of the Jain Scriptures and canons, were convened at two different places, the two ācāryas could not meet each other even after completing the task successfully. Both of them attained heavenly abode. Hence, though there is uniformity in the doctrines rearranged by them, nevertheless whatever slight differences in the verses appeared, continues to remain so even today, as the succeeding ācāryas fearing sin, did not alter it.  Consequently, the commentators when referring to those texts, state 'Nāgārajunīyah punah evaṃ Kathāyanti' (the school of thought of Nāgārjuna says like this). These types of quotes indicate the differences that exist in the recensions (Vācanās).

By protecting the waning canonical knowledge, Ācārya Skandila is and will be remembered forever with lot of reverence, for the cherished and commendable efforts he extended not only to the Jain Order, but also to the monks, devotees, and the other spiritual aspirants.

He observed Samādhi and attained heavenly abode in Mathura approximately in V.N. 840.

Himvanta Kṣamāśramaṇa- 22nd discourse-ācārya

Ārya Himvan (Himvant) became the 22nd discourse-ācārya, after Ārya Skandila attained heavenly abode. He was considered as the disciple of Ācārya Skandila. He was well-conversant in many Pūrvas and an efficient commentator. He made remarkable service to the Jain Order by propagating and expanding Jainism, facing and resolving bravely the problems encountered during propagation. He was made discourseācārya in the middle of the 9th century V.N.

23rd discourse-ācārya &
25th epochal-ācārya of his time Nāgārajuna

Ārya Nāgārajuna succeeded Ārya Himvanta Kṣamāśramaṇa. He was a Kṣatriya by birth. His father was Saṃgrama Siṃha of Ṭhaṃka Nagara. His mother's name was Suvratā. As soon as the soul of Nāgārjuna entered her womb, she saw a thousand headed cobra in her dream. So the child was named Nāgārjuna. He was impressed by the magical powers of Ācārya Pādalipta Sūri. Nāgārjuna was a famous chemist of his times. He knew thoroughly the medicinal value and properties of different herbs and vegetation.

The analysis of time and sequence of events brings to light that after epochal-ācārya Ārya Siṃha attained heaven in V.N. 826, considering the explicit intellect and age, Ārya Skandila was conferred with the rank of discourse-ācārya and simultaneously the young monk Ārya Nāgārjuna was appointed as epochal-ācārya. Then, in V.N. 840, when Ācārya Skandila attained the heavenly abode, eldest monk Ārya Himvanta was appointed as discourse-ācārya and after his demise, in the absence of any other discourse-ācārya, the then epochal-ācārya Ārya Nāgārjuna was handed over the responsibilities of discourse-ācārya too.

It is already mentioned under the topic on Ārya Skandila that when Ārya Skandila had convened a council for the recension of the Āgamas, Ārya Nāgārjuna too at the same time, convened a council in the southern region in Vallabhī Nagara. This bears the testimony for the fact that Ārya Nāgārjuna was given the responsibilities of Vācaka of the congregation. Sequential order of important events of his life is as follows:


V.N. 793

Household life duration

14 years


V.N. 807

Tenure as an ordinary Monk

19 years

Became ācārya

V.N. 826

Tenure as ācārya

78 years

Heavenly abode

V.N. 904

Total longevity

111 years

During the period of epochal-ācārya Ārya Nāgārjuna King Ghaṭotkaca of Gupta dynasty ruled upto V.N. 846. After his death, his son Candragupta-I expanded the Kingdom.

Caityavāsi (Temple dwellers)

From the times of Ārya Sudharmā to the period before Ārya Sāmanta Bhadra Sūri, Jain monks used to live mostly in forests and gardens. In 'Nirayavalik Sūtra' it is mentioned that Sudharmā Swāmī took resolution, in the garden called Guṇaśīla and wandered. Under some exceptional circumstances, certain monks at times might have stayed in lodgings (vasativāsa); but till that time, mostly they stayed in the forests during their wanderings. In spite of this, these monks were recognized as of 'Nirgraṃtha tradition' and not as 'Vanavāsi tradition'. Next comes the time period of Sāmanta Bhadra Sūri, who with his entourage of monks was being called as Vanavāsi Gaccha'. In order to prevent the increasing influence of staying, rather camping at the lodgings as make-shift houses, he started propagating 'staying in forests'. This was an encouraging effort to prevent the monks from being weakened in the observance of the holy path and austerities. But this type of strict arrangement on the part of the monks could not sustain for long due to the changing times, lack of self-confidence and determination of the monks.

This can also be stated beyond doubt that the convention of camping in forests and gardens renewed by Sāmanta Bhadra could not continue for long. Gradually going through alterations and modifications, ultimately it took the form of Caityavāsa, a dwelling in monasteries or temples by V.N. 808.

The more the Śramaṇas were lured by the royal patronage and honour, the more they deviated from the path of temperance. Indifference and disinterest for studying the scriptures increased in degrees and following the basic principles of conduct of Dharma remained only in words. Thus infatuated with the comforts and luxuries of life, they preferred shifting from Vanavāsa (living in forests) to Vasativāsa (living in monasteries / lodgings). Since then Caityavāsa metamorphosed into Mathavāsa Upāśrayas (living in monastery lodgings) of the Yati-society.

When Ācārya Sśmanta Bhadra of Candra lineage started the concept of living in forests, a momentum started even in the Śramaṇas of other Kulas like Nāgendra, Candra, Nivritti and Vidhyādhara who followed his example and were called as 'Vanavāsi Gacchas'. But owing to the difficult times, they encountered many problems while living in forests.

To cite a few, continuous internal wars among the kings, repeated long-term droughts, scarcity of food and water, long breaks in study and learning of the scriptures, waning of scriptural knowledge, decrease in energy levels, dislike of people and disorderliness in congregation, etc. are some of the reasons. After a profound analysis of the pros and cons scholars of the Āgamas decided that the wandering monks should camp in the lodgings near the temples instead of staying in the settlements of laymen. This started in V.N. 882 itself. Even though they stayed in temples or lodgings instead of living in forests, they did not reside there permanently. They continued their constant wanderings and so they were called wanderers (Vihārakas).

But in course of time, this practice also degenerated and the monks started living permanently in the monasteries. By the end of the Vikram 8th century (V.N. 12th century), staying in monasteries (Caityavāsa) had become more or less like a dwelling in a residence (Grahavāsa).

The Jain monks were always of the opinion that it is essential to keep away from the association of householders as much as possible, so that they do not develop any attachment.  If one stays for a long time at one place, it is likely to develop attachment. Thus deviation from detachment may occur. Keeping this in mind, they had their stay at a distance from the residences of the householders and such stay was never permanent. Even after the nirvāṇa of Lord Mahāvīra, they continued this propriety of living away from householders with detachment. As it goes, 'gāmegāme, ege rāyaṃ, Nagre-Nagre pānca rāyaṃ', they lived true to this statement, wandering with detachment from place to place.

But as soon as they started living in monasteries, near the residences of lay devotees, this is for sure that, the devotees did definitely extend their maximum services to the monks mornings and evenings, without fail. With lot of sentiments and feelings, they would come and go, paying their respects to the monks; on their part, the monks too would get carried away by emotions upon receiving so much devotion and reverence. Thus the monks started preferring permanent dwellings out of attachment. When the monks started living permanently at one place, a lot of undesirable issues crept into their ascetic practice and in their lives as well. This is the negative contribution of Temple dweller.

Ācārya Hari Bhadra gave a poignant description of the degenerated and distorted proprieties of monastic life in his text, 'Saṃbhodhaprakaraṇa' from which one understands the evil effects of monastic life. Ācārya Hari Bhadra expressed his feelings in the following manner:

"Those monks never pull (keśa-locana) their hair, they hesitated to practice endurances (pariṣaha), they remove dirt from their bodies, they wander wearing wooden sandals and slippers and they without any reason wear a cloth around their waists". He called the monks who do not pluck their hair as a coward. He writes further: "These monks live in temples and monasteries; they worship, enjoy & consume the materials obtained in the name of the Lord. These monks order for the construction of temples and places, wear varied-coloured and aromatic clothes, like a herd without a cowherd, they sing in front of women without any restraint, they eat the edibles brought by the female ascetics, they keep different types of implements, they enjoy the living substances (sacita) like water, flowers, and fruits, eat two to three times a day and even enjoy betel and cloves."

"They calculate and find out auspicious moments, explain the omens and even give sacrificial ashes (vibhūti), receive sweetmeats and delicacies prepared for feasts, they flatter others just to receive food from them, and do not explain the real holy path even if asked."

"They take bath, apply oil, and beautify themselves with make-up, use perfumes and scented oils and in spite of themselves being deprived, would involve in criticising others.

In spite of witnessing the distorted and corrupted form of these monks, the devotees thinking them to be Tīrthaṃkaras, pay their respects to them. Ācārya Hari Bhadra describes these devotees using very harsh language:

"Some unintelligent people say that these are clad as Tīrthaṃkaras. So we have to prostrate ourselves on their feet. Oh!  Shame on them!  With whom shall I share my grievances?"

In the introduction to his 'congregation Paṭṭika', author Jinavallabha, narrating the history of monastic life, writes - "approximately from V.N.

850, some monks gave up the aggressive wandering and started living in shrines. Gradually their number increased and in course of time they became very powerful". "They started propagating that it is now appropriate for the monks to live in monasteries. They should also keep money to buy books, etc".

It is said that in VS 802 (V.N. 1252), in Anahilpura, the Guru Śīlaguṇa Sūri compelled Vanarāja Cāvadā, the king of Pāṭṭana, to issue an order, prohibiting the entry of any monks (including Vanavāsi monks) other than Temple dweller monks into the city. In order to nullify this inappropriate command, Jineśwara and Buddhi Sāgara, the two scholarly monks of right-path (vidhi-mārgi) in V.S. 1074 (V.N. 1544,) challenged for debate on the scriptures with those Caityavāsi monks in the court of King Durlabhdeva and defeated them. It was only then that the monks of 'right-path' were allowed to enter the city of Pāṭṭana.

The study of the ancient books brings out the fact that even in the existence of few monks who strictly adhered to the holy-path, the Temple Dweller wielded power for long. However the monks, who were ardent devotees and followers of Jain Order, vehemently opposed the deterioration in the austerities and stood firm on the holy-path based on the doctrinal principles of Mahāvīra.

After Jinavallabha, Ācārya Jinadatta and Jinapati and in Saurastra monks Candra and Sundar etc., the scholar monks of the right-path, through their writings and sermons competed with the Temple dweller and eventually outwitted them. After V.N. 15th century, these Temple dwellers converted and were found in the form of Yatisamāja.

Just like in Śvetāmbara tradition, its influence is also seen in the Digambara tradition. The seats (positions) of Bhaṭṭārakas can be said to be representative of that Caityavāsa and māthavāsa.

From 'Liṃga Pāhuḍa' by Ācārya Kundakunda, the fact came into light that even such type of Jain monks existed in those times, who arranged matrimonial alliances and were engaged in activities of violence like cultivation and commerce. Śivakoṭi the Temple dweller monk who supported living in monasteries wrote in his 'Ratnamālā' that in Kaliyuga, the best of the monks should not reside in the forests. It is appropriate for them to live in Jain shrines and particularly in villages.

It is believed that the Digambara monks had given up living in forests in V.N. 472 and might have started living in Nasiā (shrine); soon this also got distorted and after VS 1219, they started living in monasteries and such monks were called with respect as Bhaṭṭārakas (administrator Monks). By V.N. 1285, the Caityavāsa totally stopped the monks ceased to live in temples and began living in Upāśrayas (monasteries where Jain monks can stay temporarily).

Royal dynasties during Ārya Skandila and Ārya Nāgārjuna time


When Ārya Nāgārjuna was the epochal-ācārya, the reigning period of King Ghaṭotkaccha of Gupta dynasty lasted till V.N. 846. After his death, his son Candrgupta-I ascended the throne and expanded the kingdom.

Historians assume that the reign of Candragupta-I extended from A.D. 319 to 335 (V.N. 846 to 862). The famous historian of the west, Mr Fleet proved that in A.D. 319 - 320, Candragupta-I assumed the title King of kings or emperor 'Mahārājādhirāja' and initiated the gupta calendar. In order to honor himself with the title of 'Mahārājādhirāja', first as a king, he should have already invaded and conquered the neighboring states of Magadha, which might have easily consumed a span of 4 to 5 years. Immediately after ascending the throne, a king defeating and conquering such vast area within two months and assuming the title 'Mahārājādhirāja' is beyond comprehension. In such a situation, after analyzing the facts, it appears that Candragupta-I might have ascended the throne a few years before 319-320 A.D., and this does sound reasonable and appropriate. So his coronation ceremony might have taken place between 310 and 315 A.D. and he might have extended his father's kingdom when still a crown prince.

Historians consider Śrīgupta as the founder of the Gupta dynasty and Candragupta-I was the founder of the Gupta Empire. According to the Allahabad pillar inscription, Candragupta-I considered his youngest son Samudra Gupta to be most fitting and proclaimed him as his successor in the royal court saying, "Now, you rule this kingdom." Samudra Gupta had to face the war of succession after the death of his father.

Contemporary Kings of Ārya Nāgārjuna period

The noblest Mahārājādhirāja Candra Gupta-I declared his youngest son Samudra Gupta as his heir-apparent because he was the ablest and fittest among his sons. After his death, Samudra Gupta came out victorious in the war of succession and ascended the throne in V.N. 862 i.e., 335 A.D.

In the Allahabad inscription, the court poet Hariṣeṇa described about the three military expeditions accomplished by Samudra Gupta.

In his above three military expeditions, Samudra Gupta subjugated and annexed all the big and small kingdoms, except the western region ruled by Śakas, and established a vast powerful Gupta Empire.  It is estimated that Samudra Gupta reigned from 862 to 902 V.N.

Ārya Govinda-The 24th discourse-ācārya

Ārya Govinda was an imminent scholar in expositions (Anuyogas) and a famous scholar. In the 'Vicāra śreṇī' of Ācārya Meru Tuṃga, Ārya Govinda's name appears between Ācārya Nāgārjuna and Ācārya Bhūtadinna. The author of Niśītha Cūrṇi mentioned about 'Govinda Niryukti', so Ārya Govinda might have also been a commentator (writer of treatises on canons).

According to Monk Punya Vijaya, monk Govinda, the author of Niryukti was none other than the ācārya who was described as the scholar of expositions (Anuyogadhara) in NandiSūtra, and as 28th epochal in Yugapradhāna Paṭṭāvalī  and as the fourth Yugapradhāna after Ārya Skandila, the leader of 'Māthurī recession or Vācanā.'  Ārya Govinda was a renowned discourse-ācārya of his times.

Bhūtadinna 25th discourse-ācārya & 26th epochal-ācārya

Ārya Bhūtadinna followed Ārya Nāgārjuna to the rank of discourseācārya. According to Nandi Sthavirāvalli, Ārya Bhūtadinna was the disciple of Ārya Nāgārjuna but the Duṣamākāla Śramaṇa congregation Stotra describes him as epochal-ācārya. Ācārya Devavācaka in his Sthavirāvalī describes him in the following words:

"He was considered as the most prominent among the then existing Indian monks because of his remarkable knowledge in the Aṃgas like Ācārāṃga etc., and in the other scriptures. He was very skilled in the administration of the congregation. He appointed many able monks to carry out the study of scriptures (Swādhyāya) and service of the saints (Vaiyāvṛtya), etc." According to 'Yugapradhāna Yantra' his particulars are as follows:


V.N. 864

Household life duration

18 years


V.N. 882

Tenure as an ordinary Monk

22 years

Became ācārya

V.N. 904

Tenure as Epochal-ācārya

79 years

Heavenly abode

V.N. 983

Total longevity

119 years

King Candragupta-II
A Contemporary of Ārya Nāgārjuna & Bhūtadinna
902 - 941V.N. (375 - 414 A.D.)

After the death of Samudra Gupta in 902 V.N., his son Candra Gupta-II inherited a vast empire.  Samudra Gupta's father Candra Gupta-I chose his youngest son from among his children, and announced him as his successor; similarly Samudra Gupta also chose Candra Gupta-II from among his children to be the best heir in all aspects and made him the crown prince.

Some scholars opine that in the transition period between Samudra Gupta and Candra Gupta-II, an inefficient king like Rāma Gupta ruled over the kingdom for 2-3 years.  However, historical evidences prove the fact that Samudra Gupta himself made Candra Gupta-II as the heir-apparent of his vast empire.

Candra Gupta-II was a great warrior and a valiant king.  He defeated the Satrapies of Śaka kings like Mālawa, Saurastra and Gujarat and killed the great Śaka Satrap, Satya Simh-III. Thus, he liberated India from the long rule of the Śakas approximately in 925 V.N. (400 A.D). As he ended the

rule of the Śakas, the people conferred upon him the title, 'Śakāri Vikramāditya'.  He was a very just, scholarly king of unblemished character.  He brought the entire India under a single rule. Seven inscriptions of Candra Gupta Vikramāditya are available to date.

Political Scenario during Ārya Bhūtdinna

After the demise of Candra Gupta-II, his eldest son Kumāra Gupta-I inherited the vast kingdom. His mother was Dhruva Devī.  It is estimated that he reigned from 414 - 455A.D. (941 - 982 V.N.).

Except for the last five years, no significant political event occurred in his long reign of 41 years. Around V.N. 977, a tribe known as Puṣyamitra, whose small kingdom was located near Narmada River in the Southern region, mobilised a vast powerful army with a firm resolution to depose Kumāra Gupta-I of Magadha and attacked him. A fierce battle broke out between the two armies.  Probably, the attack was aimed at either routing out the Gupta Empire or with an ambition to seize and become the emperor of a vast empire. As he was backed by a huge army, Puṣyamitra continuously won the battles one after the other. The army of Kumāra Gupta-I lost its morale. At the crucial and decisive moments of victory and defeat, Prince Skanda Gupta, the elder son of Kumāra Gupta-I took over the charge with great fervor and gallantry. He, boosting the morale of his army, gave a stubborn resistance to the enemy.  He mobilised additional troops, counter-attacked and crushed the opponent's army. Thus Skanda Gupta gave his full support to his father, at the exact moment, safeguarded and protected the kingdom from falling victim into the hands of a formidable foe.

Because of these internal wars between Kumāra Gupta-I and Puṣyamitras, India became vulnerable.  Had this battle not taken place, the Hūṇas would not have summed up the courage to invade India.

Ārya Lohithya, 26th discourse-ācārya

After Ārya Bhūtadinna, Ārya Lohitya became the discourse-ācārya of the congregation. In the words of Devārdhigaṇī Kṣamāśramaṇa, Ārya Lohitya was an able interpreter of the Sūtras and a skilled exponent of the substance, with the detailed description of its perishable and imperishable properties.

Even in the Digambara tradition a monk with a name Lohācārya or Lohārya, who was a scholar in eight Aṃgas, was considered as one of the prominent ācāryas.

Ārya Dūṣyagaṇi 27th discourse-ācārya

Ārya Dūṣyagaṇi succeeded to the rank of discourse-ācārya after Ārya Lohitya. Ācārya Devārdhigaṇī Kṣamāśramaṇa praised him as the best discourse-ācārya of his times. Śramaṇas of hundreds of other Gacchas who had yearning for knowledge used to come to learn the scriptures from him. He interpreted and commented the scriptures with such efficacy and fluency that he never felt fatigue either mentally or physically.

The author of Sthavirāvalī, Devārdhigaṇī Kṣamāśramaṇa offered salutation to Ārya Lohitya in the following manner, "I humbly prostrate on the feet of Ārya Dūṣyagaṇi which are adorned with auspicious marks and have delicate soles". This praise makes it very clear that Devārdhigaṇī Kṣamāśramaṇa was the disciple of Ācārya Dūṣyagaṇi and hence he was well aware of the auspicious marks and delicate soles of his Guru's feet. His tenure falls in the middle of the 10th century V.N.

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Title: Jain Legend: Jain Dharma ka Maulika Itihasa (2)
Acharya Hasti Mala
Shugan C. Jain
Publisher: Samyakjnana Pracaraka Mandala, Jaipur
Edition: 2011