Pacchakkhāṇa leading to Sallehaṇā

Posted: 08.06.2016
Updated on: 09.06.2016

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Bhogilal Leherchand Institute of Indology


Paper Presented at

The National Seminar

Organised by

Bhogilal Leherchand Institute of Indology, New Delhi

13/14 February 2016

Pacchakkhāṇa leading to Sallehaṇā

Dr. Hampa. Nagarajaiah (Hampanā)

Emeritus Professor, Bengaluru

Preamble

The relevance of a Seminar on Sallekhanā is of greater significance and needs no exaggeration since a debate on euthanasia is now of global interest. The Article 21 states about the right to live with dignity and the debate is whether it also includes the right to die. The question is whether patients who are terminally ill and beyond the scope of medical revival be allowed to die with dignity. The case in reference that necessitated a legislation was that of nurse Aruna Shanbaug who lay in a vegetative state in a Mumbai Hospital for an unbelievable prolonged period of 42 Years, between 1973 and 2015. Obviously wise counselling thought it appropriate to avoid 'cruel and unwanted treatment'. In fact the Supreme Court in its landmark verdict of 2011, after matured consideration, had laid down a broad legal framework. Though it did not backup active euthanasia such as injecting a patient with a lethal substance to put an end to patients prolonged terrible suffering. The Supreme Court being aware and cautious allowed "passive euthanasia" (withdrawal of life support), but  made it mandatory that every instance should get the approval of High Court Bench, based on consultation with a panel of medical experts. Now the Union Government has informed a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court stating its experts are examining a draft Bill proposed by the Law Commission in its 241st report. Since the matter is pending before the Court, the Law Ministry has advised to hold back its enactment.

Against the backdrop of such debates it is time rather god sent opportunity to show how invaluable contribution of ancient Jaina thinkers are ignored and marginalized by prominent writers of East and West, on the subject under discussion. Regrettably, the Cultural Imperialism of the Sanskrit oriented Vedic scholars have an apathy for Shramanic tradition and contribution. When the Medical and Legal expertise is deeply involved on the ways and validity of enacting a Law on euthanasia, it's amazing that the ancient Jaina Lawgivers, patriarchs and preceptors, had so methodically contemplated on a universal and eternal subject of not only living with dignity but also dying with dignity.

The quintessence of Jaina philosophy is encoded and embedded in the four canons called the Prathamānuyoga, Karaṇānuyoga, Caraṇānuyoga and the Dravyānuyoga - all written in Prakrit language. The Ārādhanā grantha also in Prakrit, belongs to the branch of Caraṇānuyoga, which describes disciplines and code of conduct prescribed for both monks and the laity (house holders). It is an unique treasure trove, rather ratnakaraṇḍa, a jewel box containing gems of spiritual and cultural importance. The Ārādhanā Karṇāṭa Ṭīkā (Circa. 800 CE), which is more widely referred as the Vaḍḍārādhane, containing 19 short stories, is a Kannada commentary on the Prakrit Ārādhanā (also known as Mūlārādhanā, Bhagavatī Ārādhanā and Bṛhadārādhanā) of monk Śivārya alias Sivajja and Śivakoṭi (Circa. 2nd century CE.). The Ārādhanā Karṇāṭa Ṭīka (=AKT) was written by Bhrājishṇu, a rare author by a rare name, during the reign of the imperial Rāshṭrakūṭas of Malkheḍ (Mānyakheṭa), possibly when Amoghavarṣa Nṛupatunga (814 - 875 AD) was on the throne.

Jaina authors from ancient times have contemplated on death and its varieties. One of the 36 chapters in the Uttarādhyayana deals with the topic of death. Among the ten prakīrṇakas (miscellany) there are two pratyakhyānas called the āturapratyakhyāna and mahāpratyakhyāna. The former work containing 74 verses, deals with various types of death and the means leading to them. The latter work, containing 142 verses, deals with renunciation, expiation, confession etc. In addition to these texts, the bhaktaparijñā, consisting of 172 verses, also describes types of death. Interestingly, the Candraveḍhyaka (Candrakaveḍhya) prakirṇaka (175 verses) explains how one behaves at the time of death. It is well known, the Ārādhanā in Prakrit is an unique treatise on death, plausibly the only book of its kind in world literature. The work has commentaries in Sanskrit, Prakrit and Kannada languages. Aparājitasūri's Śrivijayodaya Ṭika (circa 9th century) and Ashādharasūri's commentary (13th century) are more popular commentaries. The AKT (Vaḍḍārādhane) in Kannada language, is one more such famous and early extant commentary. The 19 stories in the AKT illustrate the deeds of great ascetics who were subjected to torture, a kind of four upasargas, and died a peaceful death by observing one of the prescribed Jaina vows. Many sub-stories, as part of main story, are interesting from various points of view.

It is well known, the Ārādhanā in Prakrit is an unique treatise on death, plausibly the only book of its kind in the world literature. The work has commentaries in Sanskrit, Prakrit and Kannada languages. Aparājitasūri's Śrīvijayodaya Ṭīkā (circa 9th century) and Āshādharasūri's commentary (13th century) are more popular commentaries. The AKT (Vaḍḍārādhane) in Kannada language, is one more such famous and early extant commentary. The 19 stories in the AKT illustrate the deeds of great ascetics who were subjected to torture, a kind of four upasargas, and died a peaceful death by observing one of the prescribed Jaina vows. Many substories, as part of main story, are interesting from various points of view.

A beautiful sub-story enshrined within the main story of Bhadrabāhu Bhaṭāra, the famous śrutakevalin, who possessed scriptural knowledge, narrates vicissitudes of Nandimitra who breathed his last by observing the religious vow of sallekhanā. Interestingly the story does not employ the word sallekhanā (Pk. sallehaṇā). Instead it only employs the Prakrit technical word pacchakkhāṇa, equivalent to Sanskrit pratyakhyāna, i.e., renunciation of certain foods, which is one of the six āvaśyakas or 'the essential duties' to be followed by the members of the mendicant order. Literally pratyakhyāna means giving up sātvika, rājasa and tāmasa or the three types of food items and activities for a specified period. In a way it is a prelude leading to sallekhanā, where fasting is extended till death. Early patriarchs and pontiffs have set the standard and let us recall the words of ācārya Umāswāmi-

māraṇāntakī sallekhanām joshitā [Tattvārthasāra 7.22].

In his immortal work Ārādhanā, Ācārya Sivārya has explained proper time, space and environment, and the condition of the body to opt for bhakta-pratyakhyāna, i.e., samādhi maraṇa:

vāhivva duppa sajjhā jarā ya sāmaṇṇa jogga hāṇikarī

uvasaggā vā deviya māṇusa tericchayā jassa. 70.

aṇulomā vā sattū cāritta viṇāsayā have jassa

dubbhikkhe vā gāḍhe aḍavīe vippaṇaṭṭho vā. 71.

cakkhuṃ vā dubbalam jassa hojja sodam va dubbalam jassa

janghābala parihīṇo jo ṇa samattho viharidum vā. 72.

aṇṇammi cāvi edārisammi āgāḍha kāraṇe jāde

ariho bhatta paiṇṇāe hodi virado avirado vā. 73.

He who has incurable disease, or old age unusual to young age, calamity from divine or human or animal world, is eligible to bhakta-pratyakhyāna. When faced with person, may he be a relative or friend or foe, capable of destroying one's virtue, when faced with famine, or lost track in dense forest, the monk is eligible to bhaktapratyakhyāna. He who is not able to see or hear, or walk any more, is eligible for the vow. He, monk or layperson, who is facing similar valid causes is also eligible to the vow.

We are all familiar with ācārya Samantabhadradeva's verse of his Ratnakaraṇḍa Srāvakāchāra (122) where he has encoded the very description of the early text Ārādhanā-

upasarge durbhikshe jarasi rujāyāṃ ca niḥpratīkāre

dharmāya tanu vimochanam āḥuḥ sallekhanām āryāḥ. 122.

Sacred grounds to perform the sacred ritual of fast unto death are - unavoidable calamity, great famine, old age and terminal illness or similar circumstances. With the above definition and description let us examine the story of Vaḍḍārādhane.

Summary of the story in brief;

<< A merchant couple, Devila and Prithvishrī, lived happily and lead a prosperous life at Palālakūṭa. When Prithvishree conceived, ill luck started chasing the couple. They lost all their property. To earn their livelihood, trader Devila followed a troupe of merchants with loaded bullock carts to sell their goods. On their way robbers looted and Devila died in the struggle to escape. Prithvishrī gave birth to a male child who was named as Nandimitra. Soon she died and the orphan Nandimitra was sent out because wherever he was given shelter, bad luck would haunt. With none to extend guardianship, the orphan child wandered from place to place. Albeit, Nandimitra had grown strong and sturdy. Hence he was appointed to gather firewood in the forest and carry it on his head, where as his master would sell it in the city. His remuneration was only a meal a day. He worked hard and soon his master became rich. Once, on a festival day, his master's wife fed him generously.

<< When once the belly was fully, the very next day, Nandimitra demanded more wages. His master came to know that his wife transgressed his orders and fed him sumptuously. He thrashed and banished her from his house. Seeing this act of treachery and cruelty, Nandimitra left the place and started his own business. One day he saw a Digambara monk who was on his way for food. Nandimitra thought < I am lucky that I have at least a lion-cloth. Alas, this poor man does not have even that. Let me see where he is going >. Nandimitra followed and for his astonishment Digambara monk was received by the king and his retinue for āhār-dān. Thinking Nandimitra was a junior monk, he was also escorted into the palace and was fed with variety of items which he had never heard or tasted in his life time. After āhār-dāna the Digambara monk, followed by Nandimitra, returned to the Jinamandira outside the city.

<< Nandimitra contemplated and decided that this is the best and easy way of life. He requested the monk to take him as a disciple. The monk looked and realized that Nandimitra is an āsanna-bhavya and his life is very brief. He was admitted to the monkhood, The news spread and the laity was on its toe to cease the opportunity of giving the first āhāra-dāna to the new monk. The Rāja-śreshṭhi, 'the royal-merchant', went and prostrated and requested to bless him by taking food in his house. Astonished by this request monk Nandimitra thought < It is not even 24 hours after taking dīksha, the richest man is here. Let me wait and see a day more!>. Next day senāpati, chief of the king's army, approached and requested to take food in his house. Nandimitra was surprised at this honour but politely said 'today I am fasting'. On the 3rd day Yuvaraja, 'heir apparent to the throne', came but went back disappointed. On the fourth day, chief queen came and prayed but in vain. Finally king also requested to visit his palace for āhār-dān and bless. Nandimitra was awestruck at the sight of king who stood with folded arms requesting him to oblige. He felt all this glory could happen because of the jaina dīksha and upavās. Hence he decided to fast jāvajjīvam, till his death. >> [Vaḍḍārādhane (Kannada Text), English rendering Hampanā].

This ancient story clearly demonstrates the fact that even ordinary people are entitled to become monks and are eligible to follow the rite of sallekhanā. Jaina preceptors have considered it as an act of religious merit, and it is a great festival and a grand celebration. In brief, it is the crowning glory of a dignified human life. Clear and proven historical associations of the Deccan with Jainism explicitly manifest from the last four centuries of BC, as is evident from the inscriptions of Tamiḷnāḍu. In Karnataka also apostle Bhadrabāhu and his disciple Candragupta Maurya were the earliest (early 3rd cent. BC). Hundreds of nishidhi inscriptions set up in memory of those who died by observing the vow of sallekhana are extant in Karnataka. For that matter the earliest extant records in Karnataka are nishidhi epigraphs and curiously they all come from Jaina hills. Among the available post-mortem memorial records, in the chronological order, nishidhi inscriptions from Sosale (Mysore district), Arabaḷḷi (Ballary district), and Kaḷvappu (Śravaṇabeḷagoḷa) are the earliest, all datable to circa 5th, 6th and 7th centuries of the current era. After describing 17 varieties of death, Sivajja abridges it to 5 types as follows:

paṇḍida-paṇḍida maraṇaṃ paṇḍidayaṃ baalpaṇḍidaṃ ceva

baalamaraṇaṃ cauttham pancamayaṃ bālabālam ca. 26

The kevali-bhagavantas (omniscient) of kshīṇa- kashāya (dissociation from conductdeluding karmas and passions) observe paṇḍita-paṇḍita maraṇa, the highest variety of attaining religiousdeath. Though it is said bhāva-lingi monks (venerable men of true virtue and insight) attain paṇḍita maraṇa, instances of two upāsakis / śrāvikas (lady house-holders) attaining it is recorded in inscriptions, one from Koppaḷa and the other inscription from Śravaṇabeḷagoḷa.

1. The highly learned princess Candabbarasi, daughter of a king and sister of a māṇḍalika, relinquished everything and accepted the vow of willing submission to death. She attained the most respected and coveted paṇḍita-paṇḍita maraṇa on 27th November 972 at Koppaḷa, well known as the ādi-tīrtha sacred place of ancient times.

2. Paṭṭamahishi Śāntaladevi,chief-queen and noble lady of Vishṇuvardhana (1108-1152), the Hoysala king and crest -jewel of Jainism, died on the 5th March of 1131, at the holy place Śivagañge, near Bengaluru, by the rite of sallekhanā. On hearing the news of Śāntaladevi's death, her mother Mācikabbe also decided to lay down her life. In the holy presence of Prabhācandra, Vardhamānadeva, and Ravicandradeva, renowned pontiffs of the Mūlasangha Pustaka gaccha Desiya gaṇa, Mācikabbe embraced the severe sanyasana and attained paṇḍita-maraṇa on the crest of Candragiri at Śravaṇabeḷagoḷa. Very many women have died by the rite of sallekhanā, but except the above two noble ladies, none of them are described as having attained paṇḍita-maraṇa. Curiously I have not come across an example of a male person's death, by vow of sallekhanā, described as paṇḍita maraṇa.

The sixth and last section of the Āvaśyaka is is devoted to pratyakhyāna. Albeit, the Ārādhanā has explained 3 types of paṇḍita-maraṇa — bhattapacchakkhāṇa (bhakta-pratyakhyāna), ingiṇī-maraṇa and prāyopagamana-maraṇa. The word bhakta has also the meaning of food, and pratyakhyāna means 'to give up (sin, food)'. Manah-pratyakhyāna, vacana-pratyakhyāna, and śarīra-pratyakhyāna are the three varieties in it. Giving up food for a limited period is pacchakkhāṇa and if it is extended jāvajjīvam (Yāvajjīvam) for life or till death, it becomes sallekhanā. Obviously bhakta (bhukta)- pratyakhyāna means 'death by completely abstaining from food'. The 19 stories in the Kannada Ārādhanā Karṇāṭa Tīkā olim Vaḍḍārādhane, are all examples for the above mentioned three types of paṇḍita-maraṇa. The Ārādhanaa text has codified all the varieties of death into five types, in ascending order - bāla-bāla maraṇa, bāla maraṇa, bāla-paṇḍita maraṇa, paṇḍita maraṇa, and paṇḍita-paṇḍita maraṇa, the last two being highly desirable and auspicious.

To put it very briefly, to weaken śarīra, the body and kashāya, passion, through rightconduct is sallekhanā. To achieve this, seeking the competent preceptor is called mārgaṇa, and he who preaches the path to salvation is diśā. The aspirant invariably should both seek and in turn give kshamā, forgiveness — seeking forgiveness is khāmaṇa, forgiving is khamaṇa, and to become free from desire and passion is sāmaṇṇa (samata). Pontiff who initiates is yāpakācārya.

The Ārādhanā text prescribes both nature of stories to be told to the aspirant, and who should tell. The content and nature of the narratives is well defined. The selected and illustrative narratives extol and confirm that death by santhāra is neither suicide nor euthanasia. A person who commits suicide does it in haste and all of the sudden, without being noticed by others. There are many ways of commiting suicide – by consuming poision, or by hanging or by drowning. Nobody encourages or appreciate the act of commiting suicide.  But he who seeks sallekhanā does not do it in haste. He is cool and composed. He does not do it in secret. It has a methodical process. People encourage and appreciate. There are different ways and the only prescribed path is fasting. These differences confirm that sallekhanā is neither euthanasia nor suicide. Mental state, circumstances leading to death, the mode of commiting the act, material employed or instruments used to die etc., are different in the acts of suicide and sallekhanā.

Suicide is devoid of righteous conduct and it is not a vrata, whereas sallekhanā is a vow, a methodical process enjoined with disciplined code of conduct. Pūjypāda ācārya has clarified that sallekhanā is neither ātmavadha, suicide, nor himsā, violence. Contemplating on the nobility, diginity and sanctity of the vow, he accepts it on his own and not out of someone's instigation or force. Without any love, hatred or anger and without using poison or deadly instruments, the aspirant (svayameva karoti) happily submits himself to perform the vow and nobody compels him [Sarvārthasiddhi 7.22.363.4 and 5].

It is to be underlined that Santhāra is tapa, penance, a sādhane, spiritual exercise, an ārādhane, worship, saṃyama, control of passion, and saṃbhrama, extreme joy. The aspirant will harbour no violence and looks like an image of ahimsā. He experiences santrupti, complete satisfaction, and feels a sense of santushṭhi, gratified. These are all completely absent in the act of suicide. In Jainism there is no room for suicide in the code of conduct prescribed for the recluse and house holder. Accordingly, committing suicide is a greater sin. For that matter, Jainism does not favour the system of observing sati, "a wife performing self-immolation on the pyre along with her husband's dead body". There is settled difference between self-immolation and sallekhanā. The wife, after the death of her husband feels insecured. A sense of orphanage, distress, fear of helplessness haunts her. To get rid off possible trouble and turmoil she opts for sati or self-immolation. Contrarily, by accepting/observing sallekhanā, one feels secured and elevated. It is believed that such a death will lead to a better rebirth and the soul leaving one body and assuming another body moves towards the state of summum bonum. The body and the soul are different, the former is transient whereas the latter is permanent. The body differs from man to man and woman. But the soul is similar in all living beings. Since all souls are equal, there is no qualitative difference. The soul has no caste, class, gender, nationality or race. The path to eternal bliss is to become vitarāga, enlightened detachment. Each and everyone desires to live. Therefore the soul is more important and hence it deserves more importance. Hence aspirants aspire for death in the holy manner prescribed by early masters.

Jaina canons have prescribed pure means to achieve greater goal, and decried impure/unholy deaths which are passion-tinged activities. It is prescribed that among different variety of stories only dharma- kathas be readout to the aspirants under the guarded supervision of experienced mendicants. Chief of the monks administering the vow,Yāpakācārya, is assisted by four more monks called paricāraka- yatis who recite or narrate dharmakathas which are pleasing, mellifluous and peace-radiating;

khavayassa kahedavvā du sā kahā jam suṇittu so khavao

jahida visottiga bhāvo gacchadi saṃvega ṇivvegaṃ.

Mulārādhana, gātha no. 653

Such narratives will strengthen decision to give up aśubhapariṇāma or unwholesome modification, to get rid of attachment for family, and to relinquish narcissism, love of one's body. Therefore stories of Cāṇakya, Gurudatta, Sanatkumāra, Sukumāra, and such other great persons who withstood all visiting afflictions (parīṣaḥa) which inspire to be firm in their decision to die and get engrossed in spiritual thinking, are narrated. The oft quoted simile of armour elucidates the importance of illustrative stories - the soldier enters battlefield by wearing kavaca, 'an armour', for protection from weapons. Analogous with it, the sallekhanā vratin wears the kavaca of firm decision in the form of keeping the ideals of noble ascetics who withstood all calamities (upasarga) under adverse circumstances. The 25th chapter in the Arādhana text is indeed called as kavacādhikāra, devoted to explain the relevance of kavaca,' armour', in the context of sallakhanā.

The technical terminology need not confuse us. The words santhāra, sallekhanā, sallehaṇā, sanyasana are all synonyms. The words santhāra and sallekana are sectarian/ regional variants, in the sense the former is more employed in the northern (Śvetaṃbara) texts where as the latter is frequently used in the southern texts. The etymological meaning of the word santhāra is grass. While observing the vow of death, the aspirant will sleep on stalk of dry grass. This method of sleeping on grass and attaining paṇḍita-maraṇa is called santhāra. We may recall the story of Ānanda, an ideal lay disciple of Mahāvīra, who took the vow of himself without getting administered by a monk-teacher (Upāsakādhyana). He renounced his family, reached the fasting Hall, spread a bed of grass and slept. He fasted for long and consequently became extremely thin. According to Sivajja, sallekhanā means simultaneously thinning out both the inner passions and the outer body. Sivajja states:

sallehaṇā ya duvihā abbhantariyā ya bāhirā ceva

abbhantarā kasāyesu bāhirā hodi hu sarīre.

[gāthā 208]

To give up all juicy food which enrich physical strength and thus become weak is exterior sallekhanā. It includes anaśana, avamodarya, rasatyāga, vruttiparisankhyāna, kāyakleśa and viviktaśayyāsana.

Ācārya Pujyapāda has also clearly defined;

samyakkāya kaśāyalekhanā kāyassa bāhyasya

abhyantarāṇām ca

kashayāṇāṃ tatkāraṇahāpana krameṇa samyaglekhanā sallekhanā

[Sarvārthasiddhi 7.22.363.1]

Having realized that body and soul are separate, the aspirant gradually will give up khādya-svādya-lehya, hard food,then soft food, then milk, juice and hot water and finally stops all intake of any type of food. He remains nirāhāri, completely abstaining from food.

The Paṇḍita-maraṇa is also one more synonym suggesting that it is the excellent mode of death preferred by the wise and matured. The Prakrit work Santhāraka Paiṇṇā deals with the topic of religious death and cites examples of Sukumāra, Cāṇakya and Subandhu. Similarly the Maraṇa-Samāhi, another Prakrit work, also deals with samādhi-maraṇa. Death while in dharma-dhyāna, sacred meditation, is frequently referred to as samādhi-maraṇa. The word sallehaṇā is a Prakrit word equivalent to Sanskrit sallekhanā. The maraṇa or death by observing the vow of sallekhana is technically described as samādhi-maraṇa, death while in meditation. In Kannada language the word muḍipu and in Tuḷu language muḍinja, and in Tamil Vaḍakkiruttal – are equivalent Dravidian words to Sanskrit sallekhanā. The words muḍipu and muḍinja come from the verbal root muḍi, 'to die'.

Preaching vows of pañca-namaskār to animals like a lion or serpent is symbolic representation of the depth and dimension of Jaina principles. To accept and follow the ritual rite, one need not be a Jain and it is not confined to monks and nuns alone. The Samayaparīkshe, a Kannada poem by poet Brahmaśiva (1175), gives a graphic description of how a person from pariah or an untouchable caste became a Jaina monk and was worshipped by Jaina house holders. One can easily notice both the peace radiating personality and the spiritual pedigree of the ascetics who willingly practiced the vow and fasted till death. Respecting the tradition, nishidhis were erected to the fond memory and greater merit of the saints who died by the rite. Hundreds of nishidhi inscriptions have come to light from Karnataka, dating from 500 CE. The earliest is from Sosale (500 AD), followed by Arapaḷḷi and Śravaṇabeḷagoḷa (600 AD). Highest number of post obitum epigraphs come from Śravaṇabeḷagoḷa and Koppaḷa. Prof. Hampana's book Jaina Corpus of Koppaḷa Inscriptions XRayed (1999) deals, from the beginning to the end, with historical persons, — kings, queens, ministers, army chiefs, traders, wellknown mendicants, men of letters, noble men and women — who courted death by abstaining from all kinds of food. Let me cite the historically important details of saint-poet Somadevasūri of the celebrated poem the Yashodharacaritaṃ and the unique Nītivākyāmrutaṃ. Tārkika-cakravarti Somadevasūri, an expert in poetry, dramatics, nātyaśāstra and grammar, who was king among poets, attained samādhi-maraṇa at Koppaḷa on Thursday, the 2nd of October 984.

The above examples per se clearly demonstrate that lay votaries from different walks of life also opted for the ritual death by fasting.Casting of one's body by prolonged fast was a common feature in Jaina community. Āśādhara has noted how death with equanimity behooves both mendicants and lay votaries;

samyaktvam amalam amalāny anuguṇa śikshā-vratāni maraṇānte

sallekhanā ca vidhinā pūrṇah sāgāradharmo'yam. 1,12.56.

Āśādhara, Sāgāradharmāmṛta.

Since the arhats, Jinas and Tīrthankaras, are free from rāgadvesha, all passions, the question of sallekhanā does not arise for them.

As far as the venue is considered, Aradhana text has clearly mentioned

Arihant siddha sāgarupama saram khīrapuppha phalabharidaṃ

ujjhāṇa  bhavaṇa toraṇa pāsadaṃ ṇāga jakkha gharaṃ.

(gāthā. 560).

The ideal place for practicing sallekhanā are Jinālya, or temple premises, siddhakshetra, on the top of similar hills of liberated souls, and near tanks containing lotus(lotus-ponds). However, willing aspirants can observe the vow sagihe - jiṇālaye, in their house or temple premises, or on the top of a hill. The cikkabeṭṭa ('small hill') olim Candragiri (s.a. Kaḷvappu, Ṛishigiri) at Śravaṇabeḷagoḷa, and the Kopaṇādri (Kopaṇagiri) hill at Koppaḷa are well known sepulchral Hills where very many monks and nuns met samādhi-maraṇa. Apostle Bhadrabāhu, emperors Candragupta Maurya and Indra IV breathed their last on the apex of Candragiri. Saint-poet Jaṭāsimhanandi, Somadevasūri, a host of monks and nuns, and kings and queens observed the vow sallekhanā on the summit of Kopaṇādri. Interestingly, we have instances of aspirants, after being administered the vow at one place, moved to another place and died. Kumārasenamunipa, chief of the friars of Candrikavāṭa senānvaya, accepted the vow at Muḷgunda, an ancient Jaina seat in Karnataka. Later, the monk retired to Kopaṇādri where he attained samādhi-maraṇa. King Mārasimha, son of Bhūtuga Permāḍi, took the vow at Bankāpura under the supervision of illustrious Ajitasenācārya and a nishidhi pillar was erected for him on the summit of Candragiri at Śravaṇabeḷagoḷa.

Select Bibliography

Jaini, Padmanabh S: Jaina Path of Purification, Berkeley, 1997. Nagarajaiah, Hampa (Hampanā):

1. Ed. Vaddaradhane, Bengaluru University, 1994.

2. Vaddaradhane: Samagra Adhyayana, Bengaluru

3. CandrakoDe, Collected Papers, Hampi University, 1997.

4. Jaina Inscriptions of Koppala XRayed, Bengaluru, 2000.

5. Bahubali and Badami Calukyas, Shravanabelagola, 2005.

6. Rashtrakutas: Re-Revisited, Bengaluru, 2015.

Samanatabhradeva: Ratnakaranda Shravakachara, Sadasukkhji Hindi

Vachnika. Kannada, Mirji Annarao, Solapur, 1959.

Settar, S:

1. Inviting Death, Dharawad, 1989.

2. Pursuing Death.

3. Shravanabelagola, An Illustrated Study, Dharawad, 1981.

Sivajja/Shivaarya; Mulaaraadhanaa, Ed. Paramapujya munishri Svastshri

108 Niyamasaagara munimahaaraj, Tumukuru, 1990.

Tukol, T.K.: Is Sallekhanā Suicide?

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