Tattvartha Sutra ► 02 Jeev - The Sentient Element ► 02.08-09

Posted: 28.03.2017

02.08 Upayogo Lakshanam



उपयोगो लक्षणम् ।


जीव का लक्षण उपयोग है ।


02.09 Sa Dwividho'shtachaturbhedah



स द्विविधोऽष्टचतुर्भेद: ।


वह उपयोग दो प्रकार का है तथा आठ और चार प्रकार का है ।




Knowing capability is the characteristic of soul and it is of two, eight and four types.

Knowing capability is the distinguishing characteristic of soul. That is its exclusive characteristic, because no lifeless substance has the knowing capability. That capability is termed as Upayog, which is mainly of two types, Sākār (having shape) and Nirākār (shapeless). Sākār Upayog denotes clarity, while Nirākār stands for relatively faint impression. The former is termed as knowledge, while the latter as perception. Matijnān, Shrutjnān, Avadhijnān, Manahparyayjnān and Kevaljnān are the five types of knowledge. Moreover, there are misleading varieties of the first three types known as Mati-ajnān, Shrut-ajnān and Avadhi-ajnān or Vibhangajnān. Sākār Upayog therefore consists of those eight types.

Nirākār Upayog pertains to Darshan, which is of the following four types, viz.

  1. Chakshudarshan, which denotes the impression gained by eyesight,
  2. Achakshudarshan, which denotes the impression derived by using other sense organs and/or mind,
  3. Avadhidarshan, which denotes clairvoyant perception and
  4. Kevaldarshan, which denotes all pervading perception of the omniscient.

Nirākār Upayog therefore consists of those four types.


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