Tattvartha Sutra ► 08 Bondage Of Karma - The Cause Of Transmigration ► 08.05

Posted: 29.06.2017

08.05 Ādyo Jnāndarshanā varan vedaniyamohanīyāyushkanāmgotrāntarāyāh



आद्यो ज्ञानदर्शनावरण वेदनीयमोहनियायुष्कनाम गोत्रान्त्रयाः।


प्रथम प्रकृति बंध ज्ञानावरण, दर्शनावरण, वेदनीय, मोहनीय, आयुष,नाम, गोत्र और अंतराय रूप है।





Jnanāvaraniya, Darshanāvaraniya, Vedaniya, Mohaniya, Āushya, Nam, Gotra and Antarāy are the main types of Karma.

This sutra mentions eight main 8 types of Karma, which are as under:

  1. Jnānāvaraniya: Jnān means knowledge and Āvaran means covering, concealing, obscuring etc. As such, this term literally means knowledge-obscuring Karma. Every soul is imbibed with infinite knowing capability. That capability is not manifested on account of the impact of Jnānāvaraniya Karma. That Karma does not actually reduce the soul's capability to know, but exercising of that capability remains restricted under its impact. This is analogous to the sunlight being restricted under the impact of clouds. This Karma thus clouds or obscures the knowing capability of soul.

  2. Darshanāvaraniya: Darshan means perception, understanding, conviction etc. As such, the term literally means perception-obscuring Karma. As the soul is imbibed with infinite knowing capability, so is it imbibed with infinite capability of perception. The manifestation of that capability remains restricted on account of the impact of Darshanāvaraniya Karma. In other words, that Karma obscures the capability to perceive.

  3. Vedaniya: As the result of his earlier Karma, one gets certain situations. Such situations may be comfortable or uncomfortable depending upon the nature of Karma. If they are comfortable, the soul can avail the same with pleasure. That is called Shātāvedaniya. If the situations are uncomfortable, the soul has to bear it with pain. That is called Ashātāvedaniya.

  4. Mohaniya: Moh denotes delusion. As such, the term means deluding Karma. When a person is deluded, he cannot comprehend properly. For instance, if one is intoxicated, he may fail to recognize even his close relatives. Like liquor, this Karma dulls the faculty of discrimination. Thereby the functioning of that faculty remains deluded and misdirected. If he is inclined to take bath, he may even use dirty water. This happens on account of his deluded state. Similarly, the worldly soul remains deluded on account of the impact of deluding Karma. That delusion pertains to perception as well as action. Hence this Karma is divided into two categories of perception related deluding Karma and character related deluding one.

  5. Āyushya: This is the life span determining Karma. As the name indicates, this Karma determines how long one would live. A longer life along with the comfortable situations is the result of wholesome Karma, while a long life along with the miserable situations is the result of unwholesome Karma. Shorter life is usually the result of unwholesome Karma, though in some cases the contrary can also be true.

  6. Nam: The designation of this Karma may seem a little misnomer, because it has nothing to do with name. This Karma pertains to the type of physique one gets. It is this Karma, which determines to the last detail the build up and outward appearance as well as the inner conditioning. Moreover, it decides the state of existence. Whether one is born in heavenly, human, animal or infernal abode depends upon this Karma. There are many categories of this Karma. Tirthankar Nam-Karma is the topmost. It decides that one would become a Tirthankar.

  7. Gotra: This Karma determines status. One gets bom in a family of high status or low status by virtue of this Karma. If the Karma is wholesome, he would be born in a noble, prosperous and literate family. If it is unwholesome, he may be born in a lowly, miserable and illiterate family.

  8. Antarāy: This Karma raises obstructions or obstacles in doing something. For instance, one may be eager to go to the temple or to listen to a lecture, but he might be prevented from going by sudden illness or other disorder. To take another example, food of one's liking may be ready on the dining table, but before he starts eating, there may be an urgent call of emergency and he may be required to rush out without taking the food.

Jnānāvaraniya, Darshanāvaraniya, Mohaniya and Antarāy types are considered as Ghātiya or Ghāti (defiling), because they hinder the manifestation oi soul's natural attributes. The remaining four types, viz. Vedaniya, Ayushya, Nam and Gotra are termed as Aghati (non-defiling), because they do not adversely affect the nature of soul. The soul has simply to bear their consequences.



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