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HereNow4U.net :: Article Archive | Yoga In Jain Tradition

Yoga In Jain Tradition

Posted: 28.01.2009
Updated on: 04.07.2015

Introduction

India is a spiritual land. It has been a birthplace for innumerable spiritual, philosophical and religions traditions since time immemorial. Unlike in the west, the eastern philosophical schools developed simultaneously, be it Brahmaṇika or Śramaṇika. But in both traditions and in almost every Indian School of Philosophical thought, the terms Yoga and dhyāna find an important place. According to Vedic ṛṣis the originator of Yoga concepts is supposed to be Hiraṇyagarbha, the personified form of God or the Ultimate Energy. According to the Jainas it is the first tīrthankara Ŗṣabhadeva. In India, Philosophy and Yoga have not developed independently of each other, as they are not separate entities. Generally every system of philosophy has a corresponding Yoga technique for the practical application of the doctrines[1]. Yoga was a way of life in Ancient India; spiritual and religious exercises, which lead towards liberation, are termed as Yoga. References of Yoga in Atharvaveda, Upaniṣadas, Mahābhārata, Bhagavad Gītā, Smṛtis, Purāṇas, Yogavaśiṣṭa, etc., go to prove the popularity of Yoga in the Brahmaṇika tradition.

However it was Mahaṛṣi Pātañjali who systematically presented the eight-fold Yoga in his Yoga Sutra. The Yoga styled naked monuments in the kāyotsarga posture in Mohenjadāro too are a pointer to this fact, besides we find references of Avadhuta and Tapasas. The Bauddha path of purification is spelt through śīla (conduct) samādhi (peace) and prajñā (enlightenment) and its practical Yoga philosophy is the popular Vipāsanā Meditation. The Jaina path of purification is a synthesis of Right faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct “i.e. ātmadarśana, ātmajñāna and ātmaramaṇa”, in other words faith in the ayoga transcendental state of the soul, knowledge of transcending the mundane conditioning of mind, body and speech. The way of transcending materialism and manifestation of the spiritual personality within is termed as Mokṣa margā. Whether it is the Yoga Mārga of Sānkhya, Visuddhi of Buddhism or Mokṣa margā of Jainism, all are intimately related and have influenced each other. It is worthwhile to see the unity of their expositions[2]. The four basic doctrines acceptable to all these systems of Yoga are:

  • The existence of soul or consciousness as an independent entity.
  • The soul or conscious entity is pure but is covered by a curtain of ignorance or kleśas or karmas.
  • The origin of such ignorance is unknowable, still there is a possibility of removing it by human efforts and lastly,
  • Self-stabilization of the soul or consciousness after getting rid of ignorance.

Although the four basic principles are the same, they are termed and named differently in each system. The following table summarizes the above four principles[3].

Details

Jain

Buddhist

Sānkhya

Nyāya Vaiśeṣika

Subject 

Independent existence of consciousness named jīva or ātmā

Independent consciousness named citta

Pure consciousness named Puruṣa

Consciousness named Atman or Jiva.

Cause of Bondage

Veiled by perverse attitude, delusion and karmas

Ignorance named samudaya and tṛṣṇā i.e. desire   

Avidhyā or ignorance

False knowledge, veil of maya

Path of liberation

Right Faith, Knowledge & Conduct 

Eight-fold path śīla, samādhi, prajñā saṅvara, nirjarā,

Discrimination and eight fold Yoga mārga

Right Knowledge and Yoga mārga

State of Liberation

Mokṣa

Nirvāṇa

Kaivalya videha mukti

Mukti or niħśreyas

The above table enumerates the reflections of the ancient saints and seers, who experienced reality but expressed it in different terminology. They did sādhanā and through tapa i.e. austerity purified their souls just as gold was purified when subject to fire. Thus we see that the term ‘tapa’ was more in vogue than Yoga. The Śramaṇa is indicative of śrama i.e. effort śama i.e. subduing of passions or sama i.e. balance of mind. The Śramanas as well as Tapasas and Yogis saw the limitation of physical penance like fasting, mortification of the flesh, etc., and realized that conquer of senses and inner passions was important for liberation. The term tapa fell short of positive connotation; hence the term Yoga became popular, at least in the Vedic tradition. The term Yoga became indicative of the realization of the ultimate reality. It came to be considered as the best and short cut to reality.

 

Meaning of the Word Yoga

The word Yoga is derived from the root word ‘yuj’ which means ‘to join’ and it also means stability of mind. The ultimate aim of all Indian philosophies except Cārvāka is liberation and this is possible by conquering the mind and transcending it. In Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra, Yoga is defined as Yogaścittavṛttinirodaħ ie giving up the activities of the citta i.e. consciousness[4]. Gītā says “Samatvam yoga ucyate” i.e. equanimity is Yoga. In Jainism it indicates the activities of body, speech and mind i.e. Kāyavanmaṇaħ karma yogaħ[5]. The vibrations of the soul are termed as Yoga[6]. Haribhadhra says that what leads one to emancipation is Yoga [Mokkeṇa joyaṇāo joggo savvo vi dhamma vāvā ro][7].

Tattvārtha Sutra further says ‘the three-fold activity causes influx of karma’ and when it is auspicious it is punya i.e. merit or virtue and when it is inauspicious it is pāpa i.e. demerit or sin[8]. One has to first give up all inauspicious activity (aśubha yoga); substitute them with auspicious activity (śubha yoga) and then learn the art of śuddhopayaga i.e. pure contemplation to be emancipated. The soul that is engrossed in aśubha yoga is the external self i.e. bahirātmā, the one in śubha yoga is the internal self and the one absorbed in śuddha yoga is the transcendental or pure self. In other words one has to check all the activities of the mind, body and speech for spiritual welfare and this is termed as saṅvara i.e. stoppage of influx of karma. Just as water flows into a pond through the inlets, kārmika influx takes place through the three channels of activity (i.e. yoga). Hence the purpose of Jaina Yoga is to transcend all mundane activities and reach the ayoga state i.e. the state of soul without activities of mind speech and body, also called transcendental state of enlightenment and bliss. This state is inherent in all jīvātmās and those who pursue and exert in the right direction eventually become paramātmās or supreme self[9]. In Jainism the term cāritra i.e. right conduct is the exact equivalent of the general term Yoga[10]. It is said:

Āsravo baṅdha hetusyat saṅvaro mokṣa kāraṇam,

Itiyam arhati dṛṣti, anayat sarva prapañcaṇam.

i.e. influx is the cause of bondage and saṅvara is the cause of emancipation. This is Arhat faith in a nutshell; and rest is an elaboration of this. The five-fold regulations (samitis), the three-fold self-control (guptis), ten-fold virtues (yati dharma), twelve-fold contemplations (anuprekṣās), conquest of twenty-two afflictions (pariṣahas) and five-fold conduct (caritra) constitute the saṅvara tattva i.e. stoppage of influx of karma. Besides the above 57 divisions, the twelve-fold austerities constitute the nirjarā tattva[11] or annihilation of karmas. Fasting (anśana), regulated diet (unodari), taking alms (bhikṣācari), giving up of tasty diet (rasparityāga), physical postures (kāyakleśa) and control of senses (pratisamlīnatā) are the six-fold external austerities. The six-fold internal austerities are:

  • Nine-fold expiation (prāyaścitta): confession, repentance, penitential retreat etc.
  • Four-fold reverences (vinaya) of faith, knowledge, conduct etc.
  • Respectful service (vaiyā vṛttya) to ten supreme personalities.
  • Five-fold study (svādhyāya) teaching, enquiry, revising, contemplation and preaching.
  • Concentration (dhyāna) i.e. meditation.
  • Detachment (vyutsarga) i.e. renunciation

Besides the practice of the above divisions of saṅvara and nirjarā which are the essential constituents of Jaina Yoga i.e. giving up the activities of mind, body and speech, perverse attitude, vow-less-ness, non-vigilance and passions which bind the soul have to be substituted with right attitude, taking to complete or partial vows, vigilance and conquering of passions respectively only then inauspicious yoga can be conquered and the objective of Yoga i.e. emancipation or freedom from afflictions be achieved. The above happen gradually as the soul advances on the 14 stages of spiritual development (guṇasthāna). The journey begins with right attitude or samyag darśana, passes through right knowledge and right conduct and culminates in manifestation of infinite knowledge, vision, bliss and power.

 

The three Karmas and Guṇasthānas

Even though the soul has inherent capacity for emancipation, spiritual progress is not possible until the love for truth becomes a conscious pursuit. There is a tendency in the soul to run away from the circle of worldly existence. But this centrifugal tendency is thwarted by a centripetal force that keeps the soul tracing the circumference of the world process. The centripetal force consists in the passion of attraction and aversion rooted in perverse attitude[12]. To conquer this centripetal force is the purpose of Yoga. The centripetal force is due to perversity and passions and has to be replaced by the centrifugal force which is love for the pure self and a deep spiritual insight.

The seat of Jaina Yoga is the self, the purpose of it is the purification of the self and the means of purification is the establishment of supremacy and full control by the self on its manifestation that has hitherto been conditioned by the senses and the mind. When the soul is ignorant of its pure state, it suffers from the Gordian knot of intense attachment and aversion. When it comes face to face with this Gordian knot of mithyātva i.e. perversity, it is termed as yathāpravṛttikaraṇa. When it breaks the knot and experiences spiritual purification it is termed as apurvakaraṇa.

The soul awakens and becomes self-conscious and this is the state of anivṛttikaraṇa. The soul then enjoys the first dawn of enlightenment or spiritual insight (Samyag Darśana). The journey that begins in the 4th guṇasthāna culminates in the 13th guṇasthāna that is sayoga kevali guṇasthāna, where the soul has become omniscient, perfect, pure, without blemish, enlightened and awakened. The three yogas of mind body, and speech are thus transcended and the soul passes through the 14th guṇasthāna which is the ayoga Kevali guṇasthāna to reach mokśa which is a state of complete freedom from birth, death, old-age, disease, fear, sorrow, poverty, karmas, body, delusion, perversion, ignorance, passion etc.[13], Thus we see that the journey which begins with right faith is nourished through saṅvara and nirjarā and culminates in the ayoga state. Yoga according to Hemachandra is the cause of final emancipation and consists in the three fold jewels of right knowledge, right attitude and right conduct[14]. It is the comprehension of the self in the self by the self on account of disappearance of the eternal delusion[15].

 

Āgamika References of Yoga

Jaina tradition is an ascetic tradition and has stressed upon self-control and self-conquer for spiritual welfare. Lord Mahāvīra the 24th tīrthaṅkara underwent rigorous austere and yogic practices for twelve and a half years and exercised complete silence, stillness, equanimity, compassion, renunciation, inward looking, contemplation, detachment with right attitude and right knowledge. The purpose of his yogic practices was to discover the peace within, which he eventually did after steadfast faith and total absorption of the self in the self. The Ācāraṅga Sutra book I chapter 9 gives detailed information of the dhyāna Yoga of Lord Mahāvīra wherein he has been called as ayatayogi i.e. he lived in the present moment. His mind, senses, intellect, feelings and subtle dispositions were all directed towards the discovery of the self [16]. The values that he propounded after becoming enlightened are, non-violence, compassion, spirituality, self-esteem, steadfastness, equanimity, tolerance, multi-dimensional viewpoint, detachment etc. His teachings emphasized the physiological, psychological, sociological, environmental, emotional and spiritual well-being of a person. The Samavayāṅga Sutra enumerates the 32 aspects of Yoga and they are as follows[17]:

  • To confess one’s sins before the spiritual master.
  • Not to reveal the confessions of others.
  • To be steadfast in righteousness/ Dharma.
  • To take to austere practices with detachment.
  • To be well versed in scriptural knowledge and put the same to practice.
  • Not to adorn the body.
  • Taking to austere practices and not publicizing them.
  • Giving up greed.
  • To practice tolerance.
  •  To be efficient in practicing self-control.
  •  To be simple, simplicity is an important trait of a Yogi.
  •  Purification of right faith.
  •  Being calm and poised.
  •  To be straightforward in practicing the vows.
  •  Being devoted to arihantas and other spiritual personages.
  •  To be firm and enduring.
  •  Fear of transmigration and desire for freedom.
  •  Giving up deceitfulness.
  •  Being dedicated to the path so taken.
  •  Giving up influx of karma.
  •  Purification of sins and blemishes.
  •  Complete renunciation of pleasures.
  •  Steadfast practice of the vows.
  •  Steadfast practice of other disciplinary regulations.
  •  Complete bodily detachment.
  •  Giving up non-vigilance i.e. carelessness.
  •  To be alert and aware.
  •  Taking to virtuous and pure contemplations.
  •  Giving up the fear of death.
  •  Being alone in the company of the self.
  •  To expiate for one’s sins and shortcomings.
  • To be constantly engaged in the study of the self and scriptures, even at the time of death.

Thus we see that in Jaina Agamas the term Yoga connotes different meanings:

  • Meditation (dhyāna)
  • Tapa (austerity)
  • Caritra (conduct)
  • Samvara (stoppage of influx of karma)
  • Nirjarā (annihilation of karma)
  • Adhyātma (spirituality)
  • Bhāvanā (contemplation)
  • Samata (equanimity) etc.

The Jaina Agamas give a detailed description of dhyāna, which is the 7th Aṅga of the eight-fold Pātañjali Yoga. Dhyāna may be inauspicious and auspicious. Ārta Dhyāna and Raudra Dhyāna are mournful and cruel concentrations, which are inauspicious, and Dharma Dhyāna and Śukla Dhyāna are virtuous and pure concentrations, which are auspicious. Each has been further subdivided into four and the aspirant is cautioned and advised to give up the former and pursue the latter[18].

Four divisions of mournful contemplation

  • Contact with undesirable and unpleasant things and people
  • Separation from the loved ones and dear things.
  • Anxiety about health and illness.
  • Craving for sensual pleasures

Four divisions of cruel contemplation

  • Thoughts of violence
  • Thoughts of falsehood
  • Thoughts of theft
  • Thoughts of protecting material possessions and people

Four divisions of virtuous contemplation

  • Reflections on the teachings of the Jinas
  • Reflections on the shortcomings of passion
  • Reflections on the fruit of karma
  • Reflections on the universe

Four divisions of pure contemplation

  • Contemplation on different aspects of a substance
  • Contemplation on one aspect of a substance
  • Cessation of the yogas of a mind and speech
  • Cessation of the yoga of subtle bodily activities

The first two types are inauspicious dhyāna or Yoga and the last two are auspicious. Both dhyāna or Yoga are used as synonyms and convey the same meaning in this context. Thus the system of Yoga in Jaina āgamas has been discussed through triple jewels, nine tattvas, two types of conduct, fourteen stages of spiritual development, twelve fold nirjarā, advanced spiritual practices (pratimās), sallekhanā etc.

The following table gives a list of some important post-āgamika Yoga works[19]:

Century

Author

Text

1st

Ācārya Kumkakunda

Samayasara Pravacanasara

2nd and 3rd

Ācārya Umaswati

Tattvartha Sutra

4th and 5th 

Bhadrabahu II

Āvaśyaka Niryukti

4th and 5th

Pujyapada Devanandi

 Samadhi Tantra, Iṣtopadeśa

6th

Jinabhadragani

Dhyana Śataka

8th

Ācārya Haribhadra

Yoga Grantha Catuṣṭaya

9th

Ācārya Jinasena

Mahapurana

11th

Ācārya Ramasena

Tattvānuśasana

11th

Ācārya Śubhachandra

Jñānarṇava

11th

Somadeva Suri

Yogasara

12th

Ācārya Hemachandra

Yogashastra

13th

Pandit. Āshadharji

Athyātma Rahasya

15th

Sundarasuri

Athyātma Kalpadruma

18th

Vinayavijayji

Shantasudharasa

18th

Upadhyaya

YashovijayajiAthyatmopanishad, etc.

20th and 21st

Acarya Tulsi and Mahaprajna

Manonuśasanam, 60 books on Prekṣā Dhyāna

In the spiritual tradition of India, Yoga occupies an important place and in the yogic tradition, dhyāna or meditation occupies an important place, and the Jaina āgamas are confined to the discussion of Yoga as dhyāna. But the above table speaks at great length of the various yogic traditions of Jainism, enumerated and discussed by the illustrious ācāryas from time to time. Based on the available āgamika and post āgamika literature, we can broadly classify the Jaina dhyāna yoga sādhanā practices in four periods[20] viz:

Period

Ācārya

Century

1.

From Lord Mahāvīra to Ācārya Kundakunda

6th C B.C to 1st C.A.D

2.

From Ācārya Kundakunda to Ācārya Haribhadra

1st C.A.D to 8th C.A.D

3.

From Ācārya Haribhadra to Ācārya Yaśovijaya

8th C.A.D to 18th C.A.D

4.

From Ācārya Yaśovijaya to date

18th C.A.D to date

In the first period Kāyotsarga, Bhāvanā, Vipāsanā and Vicaya were important. People practised meditation, contemplation not for days but for months and years together to accomplish self-realization and emancipation. Lord Mahāvīra himself fasted and meditated for 12.5 years; so did his 50,000 monks, nuns and other lay followers.

After the 1st Century A.D, philosophical speculation paved way for scriptural study and so Dhyāna sādhanā took back seat. In the 3rd period Ācārya Haribhadra and others made a comparative study of Jaina Yoga and Pātañjali Yoga and numerous texts on Yoga were written during this period.

During the 18th century works we can see the impact of devotion (bhakti) on Yoga and so many Yoga works were written based on bhakti. The modern age is an age of scientific research and speculation, hence Yoga and meditation practices have been scientifically interpreted and thus we have Prekṣā Dhyāna, Aṇųpehā Dhyāna, deep rooted in spirituality for spiritual health and welfare.

 

Eight dṛṣṭis of Haribhadra’sYoga

Haribhadra made a very valuable contribution to the comparative study of Yoga. He composed a number of works on the subject[21]. He wrote Yogabindu and Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya in Sanskrit and Yoga Śataka and Yogavimśikā in Prakṛta. In the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya he talks of two types of attitudes towards truth viz. Ogha dṛṣṭi and Yoga dṛṣṭi. Ogha dṛṣṭi is the attitude of the souls, which have not cut the knot of perversion, or ignorance, and Yoga dṛṣṭi is the attitude of the spiritually advanced souls. The following table enumerates the comparison of Patanjali’s Aṣṭānga Yoga and Haribhadra’s Yoga dṛṣṭi[22].

Dṛṣṭi

Translation Patanjali Haribhadra

Free from

Accompanied with

Light

1.

Vows

Yama – Mitrā - Inerita

Freedom from prejudice

Straw

2.

Self-control

Niyama - Tarā- Anxiety

Inquisitiveness

Cowdung

3.

Posture

Āsana - Balā- Unsteadiness

Love for listening

Firewood

4.

Regulation of Breadth

Prāṇāyāma - Diprā -  Distraction

Attentive hearing

Lamp

5.

Withdrawal of senses

Pratyāhāra - Sthirā - Lapse of memory

Comprehension

Jewel

6.

Fixing of Mind

Dhāraṇā - Kāntā - Attraction for something else

Critical Evaluation

Stars

7.

Concentration

Dhyāna - Prabhā - Mental disturbance

Clear Conviction

Sun

8.

Ecstasy

Samādhi - Parā - Attachment

Earnest practice

Moon

The first four dṛṣṭis are unsteady and fallible. The last four are steady and infallible. In the first dṛṣṭi called Mitrā, the soul has indistinct enlightenment like a flash. In this stage it accumulates the seeds of Yoga. It is in front of the Gordian knot and is noble in character. In the second dṛṣṭi the soul exercises a bit of self control and becomes steady in spirituality. It desires to get rid of the worldly existence. In the third dṛṣṭi the desire deepens and the soul gains control over posture and in the fourth dṛṣṭi it gets control over breath. Although real spiritual progress has not yet set in, the soul tries to capture the image of the truth instead of the truth itself[23]. When the soul cultivates the right faith and cuts the knot it is said to reach the fifth stage of Sthirā and enlightenment has now dawned on it. In the sixth stage the soul is engrossed in spiritual contemplation and the worldly pleasures do not allure him any longer. The seventh dṛṣṭi is Prabhā where the soul has developed concentration and is free from mental disturbances and the eighth dṛṣṭi called Parā is the consummation of dhyāna, where the soul experiences spiritual joy ie ecstasy (Samadhi). It is pure, blemish-less and perfect. This is perfection of Yoga and by means of the last Yoga known as ayoga the soul achieves emancipation[24]. All the knots are cut, karmas annihilated, mission fulfilled, vision and knowledge shine in clarity and nothing more remains to be achieved after this.

Haribhadra also discusses the three names of Yoga viz. Icchā-Yoga i.e. Yoga by intention, Śāstra Yoga i.e. Yoga by scripture and Sāmarthya Yoga i.e. Yoga by exertion[25]. He also talks of four types of Yogis i.e. Gotrayogi, Kulayogi, Pravrttacakrayogi, Nispannayogi[26]. Yogabindu discusses about the preparation for perfection through spirituality, (Adhyatma), contemplation (bhāvanā), concentration (dhyāna), equanimity (samatā) and annihilation of residual karmas (vṛttisamkśaya). He discusses 2 forms of Yoga, Niścaya Yoga and Vyavahāra Yoga in his Yogaśataka and four categories of sādhaka i.e. aspirants. Viz.

  1. Apunarbandhaka.
  2. Samyagdṛṣṭi
  3. Deśavirati,
  4. Sarvavirati.

Undoubtedly Haribhadra is influenced by Pātañjali but through his works he has neatly interwoven the Jaina beliefs and practices for the common man to understand and relate with. Haribhadra compares Yoga to a kalpataru i.e. wish-fulfilling tree and says that whosoever turns inward and searches the truth, shall find it and eventually be liberated.

Jñānarnava of Śubhacandra is another beautiful thought provoking text, which discusses the 16-fold contemplations and reveals that when one wakes up from the slumber of delusion and practices the virtues, supreme ecstasy sets in and truth then reveals itself[27]. He also distinguishes the three states of the soul as discussed earlier. He draws a very beautiful picture of a yogi engrossed in spirituality. A spiritual yogi dives deep into the ocean of compassion and loving kindness and is absolutely free from attachment and hatred. His body is steady and his mind is purified by the waves of enlightenment[28]. He discusses four types of dhyāna viz. Pindastha, Padastha, Rupastha and Rupātita[29].

According to Ācārya Hemachandra Yoga is the cause of final emancipation and he has discussed Yoga through right character and distinguishes four kinds of mental states viz. scattered (vikśipta), scattered cum collected (yātāyāta), collected (śliṣta) and merged (sulina)[30]. R. William has discussed Muniācāra and Śrāvakācāra in his book titled Jaina Yoga.

In modern times meditation on the Namasāra sutra, Navapada ārādhanā through colours, Prekṣā meditation and also Vipāsanā seem to be commonly practiced by Jains worldwide. But all Jain ācāryas stress the need for right understanding and right knowledge for the right practice of Yoga. The attitude is of prime importance for it is the right attitude that makes the Yoga right and leads to realizing the ayoga state. For a thorough study of Jain Yoga it is recommended to acquire a thorough knowledge of the fundamentals of Jainism, which include Jaina metaphysics, ethics, Karma theory, guṇasthāna etc.

The entire study of Yoga in the words of Sankaracarya can be summed up as follows:

Satsangatve Nihsaṅgatvam, Nihsaṅgatve Nirmohatvam,
Nirmohatve Niścalitatvam, Niścalitatve Jivanmuktih

(through steady devotion of the supreme consciousness, complete detachment is possible, through detachment delusion is dissolved, and then complete stability in the supreme consciousness can be attained, which eventually leads to emancipation).

S. M. Desai lays down the parallels and benefits of Yoga in his book ‘Haribhadra’s works and psycho-synthesis’. His broad conclusions are noteworthy:

  1. Yoga renders a great service both to philosophy and psychology and is a psycho-philosophic system and has a dynamics of its own.
  2. It provides a technique for the search of reality by all psychic means.
  3. It is an exercise of consciousness on consciousness itself and attempts to find keys to peep into the recesses of the consciousness too. Yoga heightens consciousness and tries to get rid of Avidyā (ignorance).
  4. Yoga unfolds human psyche, enlivens it, expands it, strengthens it, makes it dynamic and thereby transforms it completely by means of meditation, spiritual ethics and special inner processes.
  5. It provides the highest goal of life and prepares the sādhaka for its quickest achievement. Yoga is not satisfied with a smaller goal nor is it content with higher siddhi in the form of spiritual powers. It rests content only with the achievement of the highest of the high, the supreme goal of self-realisation or God-Realisation.
  6. Yoga provides the shortest cut to reach this goal but this is possible only for the sādhaka with very intense efforts. But even a sādhaka with mild efforts uplifts his life. Every effort in yoga is comparatively speedier in enabling the upliftment of the sādhaka’s life.
  7. Such potency of Yoga is due to its empirical and operational character. Its operation is more psychic than physical.
  8. Yoga is an art as well as a science. It is an art because it teaches the art of living on higher levels of consciousness. It is a science as it teaches ways to research the truths of life and how consciously practice by experiencing them.
  9. Yoga is a spiritual science of human psyche and human life and reality itself.
  10. Yoga-works and processes need a constant approach of synthesis, as general human tendency is to fragment everything. Yoga requires a holistic approach as needed in the present times[31].
Footnotes:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
[21]
[22]
[23]
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