The Jaina Doctrine of Karma And The Science Of Genetics ► [3.1] Classification Of Karma ► 4. Mohanīya karma (28 sub groups)

Posted: 01.04.2009

Mohanīya karma (28 sub groups)

This karma obstructs true faith and right conduct. It keeps up deeply involved in the worldly affairs. This karma is called king of all karmas. If we can overcome this karma then the salvation (mokṣa) is with in our reach. There are 28 sub-divisions of mohanīya karma. There are two main groups:

1

Darśana mohanīya

3 sub groups.

2

Cāritra mohanīya

25 sub groups.[28]

1. Darśana mohanīya karma

Here the meaning of darśana is true faith. At the time of its bondage this karma is single but at the time of realization, it becomes diversified into three forms namely:

  1. Mithyātva mohanīya karma
  2. Misṛa mohanīya karma
  3. Samyaktva mohanīya karma.

    1. Mithyātva mohanīya karma (false belief)
      Because of this karma soul losses his faith in tatvas (basic elements of Jainism) expounded by the omniscient ones and develop a taste for false doctrine.

    2. Misṛa mohanīya karma
      This karma makes a man indifferent to false doctrines as well as to true doctrine.

    3. Samyaktva mohanīya karma
      Due to this karma faith in the true doctrine becomes sound but breaches may occur.[29]

2. Cāritra mohanīya karma

This karma has 25 sub groups as follow:

  1. Kaṣāya mohanīya karma - 16 sub groups.
  2. No kasāya mohanīya karma - 9 sub groups.

Kaṣāya = kaṣa means saṁsāra + āya means gaining. So kaṣāya keep us in saṁsāra (worldly life).

Four main kaṣāyas are as follow:

  1. Anger (krodha)
  2. Pride (māna)
  3. Deceit (māyā)
  4. Greed (lobha)[30]

These four kaṣāyas are grouped in two:

        1. Attachment - deceit and greed - kaṣāya.
        2. Hatred - anger and pride - kaṣāya.

        Each of these four kaṣāyas are further sub grouped into four divisions. They are:

        1. Anantānubandhī
        2. Apratyākhyānī
        3. Pratyākhyānī
        4. Saṁjvalana.

    Therefore we have 4 x 4 = 16 kaṣāyas[31]

    S.

    Kaṣāya

    Anantānubandhī

    Apratyākhyā

    Pratyākhayā

    Sajvalan

    01.

    Anger (krodh)

    line in rock

    line in earth

    line in sand

    line in water

    02.

    Pride (māna)

    stone pillar

    bone

    piece of wood

    cane

    03.

    Deceit (māyā)

    Bamboo root

    horn of arm

    urine of cow

    shaving of wood

    04.

    Greed (lobha)

    fast colour

    grease

    mud

    water color

     

No kaṣāya (9 sub groups)

No kaṣāyas are those which provoke kaṣāyas. They are:

  1. Laughter (hāsya)
  2. Sorrow (śoka)
  3. Pleasure (being placed with what one likes) (rati)
  4. Displeasure (being displeased with what one dislikes) (arati)
  5. Fear (fearing one's own decisions) (bhaya)
  6. Contempt (jugupaṣā)
  7. Desiring the company of woman (puruṣaveda)
  8. Desiring union with man (stṛīveda)
  9. Desiring company of both man and woman (Napuṁsakaveda).[32]

Mohanīya karma genes

Serotonin receptor is called 5HTIB. Low seretonin causes aggression. Since genes have a role in seretonin levels and how it is used then genes must be causing aggression.[33] Comparable with Krodh mohanīya karma. If this is happening in society at large, it does not take much imagination to realize that a person who is born in a poverty, who lives in a slump, who does not have a good education, who has the "wrong" skin colour, religion or language might expect to have low status. With that comes low serotonin: and with low serotonin comes aggressiveness, hostility and violence which of course can only lead to more of the same. Obviously this tendency to violence occurs only to a small minority, even in the worst environments, so other factors are at work.[34] Comparable with krodh mohanīya karma.

The question of whether genes play a role in aggression and crime is tremendously controversial. Yet even the most vocal critics that convinced that only bad environment produce bad people, cannot deny one simple biological fact. The most important single factor in whether a person is violent or aggressive is determined by just one chromosome, the Y which assigns gender.[35] Comparable with krodh mohanīya karma.

If the only differences between man and woman is the single Y chromosome, is it directly involved in aggression? Experiment with mice suggested that it does have an important role, since changing the structure of the Y chromosome can alter the level of aggressive behaviour. The theory was perfect: the Y chromosome is the difference between men and women, and men are violent, so there must be something on the Y chromosome that is involved in violence. The problem was finding a way to test the theory on humans.[36] Comparable with hatred mohanīya karma.

Probably the most important role of the Y chromosome in aggression is manufacturing testosterone, the hormones that makes half the population male.[37] Comparable with hatred mohanīya karma. The discovery of "Crime gene" generated headlines around the world and prompted criticism from scientists who refused to believe that something so simple—even simpler than the mechanism that determines blue eyes or brown eyes—could turn man into monsters (rākṣaṣa). Doubters said the mutation alone could not cause such a personality change, that other genes must be involved or it was something in their childhood.[38] Comparable with hatred mohanīya karma.

The three judges who heard Filiaggis neurobiology defense did not by it. He was sentenced to death. But lawyers are persistent, and they will probably keep trying. As they do, judges and juries will lead to listen closely to one of the main theme of this chapter: predisposition is not predestination. Genes neurotransmitters and hormones may tip the scales, but people are not robots programmed by genes. There is plenty of room for free will and conscience in how we behave and in how we judge the behaviour of others. Remember that simply having Y chromosome, which makes a person is already a strong genetic predisposition to crimes should we then pardon a murderer simply because he is male?[39] Comparable hatred mohanīya karma.

5HT1B receptor, to test the idea that serotonin is involved in aggression.[40] Complarable krodh mohanīya karma. The master gene is called TDF, which is named for the protein it codes for, the testis determining factor. It is located not surprisingly, on the Y chromosomes the only chromosome that men have but women do not. At the beginning of life for an embryo there is no difference between a male and female, except for a mere streak that will become genitals. If the feutus is male, the TDF gene is turned on about eight weeks after conception, and differences begin to appear. To carry out its male mission, the TDF gene activates another gene that makes muellerian-inhibiting hormone, which keeps internal female organs from overlapping. The gene's second job is to activate a group of cells that synthesize testosterone, the male sex hormone that leads to the formation of the male genital track. TDF works like a switch at a railroad yard, when it is absent the train process along the female track; when present, it switches development over to the male track.[41] This is comparable with puruṣaveda nokaṣāya mohanīya karma.

Sex testing for female athletes began in 1966 in response to rumors that some of the top Russian and Eastern European female athletes were really males. The original test was single: the woman paraded naked in front of a panel of gynecologists. If that had still been the test in Kobe, Maria would have passed because she appear to be a normal woman with breasts and vagina. But in order to avoid the embarrassment of the "nude parade" a new and supposely more sophisticated procedure was introduced. A few cells were taken from the cheeck, stained with a special dye, and examined under a microscope. If the cells had two X chromosomes, meaning a female, a dark spot would appear, but if the cells were XY meaning a male, no dark spot will be visible. The maria's test results came back, there was no dark spot. That means she had an X and a Y chromosomes and, to the judges, had to be male and therefore disqualified from competing.[42] This is comparable with puruṣaveda nokaṣāya mohanīya karma.

The next gene on the list was serotonin transporter, which modulates the brain's supply of another important monoamine. Although Comings found only a weak line between this gene and self-transcendence, it was of interest because of the important role serotonin plays in emotions-especially negative emotions like depression, anxiety and hostility. Scientists still don't know it is high or low levels of serotonin that are associated with negative emotions, because what they measure is the amount of serotonin circulating at one time, not the total amount of serotonin in the brain. What they do know, however, is that variation in serotonin levels are associated with negative emotions. But once again we found no association. It did not make any difference whether people had the form of the serotonin transporter gene associated with feeling good or feeling bad - the self transcendence scores of the individuals in our study were the same.[43] This is comparable to hatred mohanīya karma.

Richard Dawkins is another pioneering evolutionary biologist, best known for popularizing the concept of the "selfish gene", but he does not think that genes have anything to do with spiritual beliefs.[44] Comparable with Lobha mohanīya karma. Testosterone the male sex harmone. This made our years perk up, because several early researchers had speculated that testosterone and other sex hormones played a role in sexual orientation.[45] This is comparable to Veda nokaṣāya mohanīya karma. More precisely, our mapping showed the "gay gene" is most likely some where between the markers GABRA3 and DXYS154 which span a distance of about five million base pairs. This represents less than 0.2 percent of the three billion base pairs in the human genome, but because the genome includes somewhere around 1,00,000 different genes, such as small area has enough room for upto 200 or so different genes.[46] Comparable with veda nokaṣāya mohanīya karma.

The dopamine D2 receptor gene, which had been co-related to alcoholism in some studies.[47] This is comparable with mohanīya karma. Some of the most intriguing evidence for the role of genes in human personality comes from studies of opposite traits: shyness and aggression.[48] This is comparable with hatred mohanīya karma. Other research has suggested that people with low levels of the chemical serotonin are prone to both impulsive, violent acts and to depression and suicide (Although this might seem contradictory, psychologist have long postulated that aggression and depression are linked, one is anger directed without, the other anger directed with in). Low serotonin by itself is probably not hazardous but when combined with stress, alcohol or abnormal levels of nor adrenaline,  it might lead to impulsive reactions as extreme as murder.[49] This is comparable with hatred mohanīya karma.

Footnotes:
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Doctoral Thesis, JVBU