The Jaina Doctrine of Karma And The Science Of Genetics ► [4.1] Bondage Of Karma ► ▪ Yoga (Activities)

Posted: 19.04.2009

Yoga (Activities)

The activities of mind (manaḥ), speech (vacana) and body (kāyā) of the jīva are called yoga. If these activities are noble, the soul gathers auspicious karma (puṇya) and if they are innoble (dishonourable) the soul gathers inauspicious karmas (pāpa).

(I) Manoyoga (Yoga of mind)

There are four types of manoyoga:

    1. Satya manoyoga,
    2. Asatya manoyoga,
    3. Satyāsatya manoyoga,
    4. Vyavahāra manoyoga.

 

(i) Satya manoyoga

It means thinking of truth, thinking of an object or its condition as it is in itself. For instance thinking the "mokṣa can be attained only by knowledge accompanied with cāritra."

(ii) Asatya manoyoga

This means thinking of falsehood (thinking of a thing of its condition in a way that is totally opposite to or different from what it is in itself). For example thinking like "activities and austerities are unnecessary for attaining mokṣa".

(iii) Satyāsatya manoyoga

It is a mixed thinking. It involves both, partial truth and partial falsehood for example thinking like "knowledge itself is enough to attain mokṣa."

(iv) Vyavahāra manoyoga

In this kind of thinking, their is neither truth nor falsehood. It is thinking about some practical affair of life such as saying to some person concerned "you must get up early in the morning"[16].

 

(II) Vacanayoga (Yoga of speech)—Vacanayoga (activity of speech) has four forms like manoyoga (activity of mind) as follows:

1.

Satyavacanayoga

Like speaking the truth about an object satyavacanayoga.

2.

Astyavacanayoga

Telling lies is asatyavacanayoga.

3.

Satyāsatya vacanayoga

Something which is partially true and partially untrue is satyāsatyavacanayoga.

4.

Vyavahāravacanayoga

It is utterances like "You go, you come etc."[17]

 

(III) Kāyayoga (Yoga of body)

There are total seven types of kayayoga as follow:

    1. Audārika śarīra
    2. Vaikriya śarīra
    3. Āhāraka śarīra
    4. Taijasa śarīra with kārmaṇa śarīra
    5. Kārmaṇa śarīra, taijas śarīra with audarika śarīra
    6. Kārmaṇa, taijasa with vaikriya śarīra
    7. Kārmaṇa, taijasa with ahāraka śarīra.

 

Human beings (manuśya) and the beings of the realm of animals, birds, insects, plants etc. (tiryanca) have the Audārika śarīra. Heavenly beings and the inhabitants of hell have the vaikriya type of body. The Mahāmunis (great Jaina saints) who have mastered the śāstras (pūrvas) can develop a body that can visit a nearby Tīrthañkara to get a clarification for their doubts. This type of body is called āhāraka śarīra. We all saṁsārī have taijasa (body of vital energy), śarīra and kārmaṇa śarīra. These two bodies stay with us until we achieve the salvation (mokṣa).[18]

Thus we have activity of audarika śarīra, vaikriya śarīra, ahāraka śarira and kārmaṇa śarīra. We don't have independent activities of taijasa śarīra. Now first three bodies can have combined activities with kārmaṇa and taijasa śarīra. Thus we have a total of 7 kāyayogas. Thus we have a total of 15 yogas of mind, speech and body, of them there are two kinds namely, the auspicious ones—the true dharma are auspicious vocal, mental and physical activities. All other activities are inauspicious. We attain puṇya (merit) by means of auspicious yoga and pāpa (sin) by mean of inauspicious yoga.

This makes the causes for the bondage of karma 57 in numbers - 5 mithyātva, 12 avirati, 25 kaṣāya and 15 yogas. The types of pramāda are not included since the pramāda is due to other four causes. [19]

Footnotes:
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
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Doctoral Thesis, JVBU