Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda ► [4] Cautho Puṇyapāvādhiyāro—Auspicious Karma (Puṇya) And Inauspicious Karma (Pāpa) ► The Path Of Emancipation Comprises Enlightened Faith, Enlightened Knowledge, Enlightened Conduct

Posted: 19.07.2010

jῑvādῑsaddahaṇaṃ sammattaṃ tesimadhigamo ṇāṇaṃ.
rāgādῑpariharaṇaṃ caraṇaṃ eso du mokkhapaho..

mottūṇa ṇicchayaṭṭhaṃ vavahāreṇa vidusā pavaṭṭhaṃti.
paramaṭṭhamassidāṇa du jadῑṇa kammakkhao hodi..

vatthassa sedabhāvo jaha ṇāsadi malavimelaṇocchaṇṇo.
micchattamalocchaṇṇaṃ taha saṃṃattaṃ khu ṇādavvaṃ..

vatthassa sedabhāvo jaha ṇāsadi malavimelaṇocchaṇṇo.
aṇṇāṇamalocchaṇṇaṃ taha ṇāṇaṃ hodi ṇādavvaṃ..

vatthassa sedabhāvo jaha ṇāsadi malavimelaṇocchaṇṇo.
kassāyamalocchaṇṇaṃ taha cārittaṃ pi ṇādavvam..

so savvaṇāṇadarisῑ kammarayeṇa ṇieṇāvacchaṇṇo.
saṃsārasamāvaṇṇo ṇa vijjāṇadi savvado savvaṃ..

sammattapaḍiṇibaddhaṃ micchattaṃ jiṇavarehi parikahidaṃ.
tassodayeṇa jῑvo micchādiṭṭhi tti ṇādavvo..17

ṇāṇassa paḍiṇibaddhaṃ aṇṇāṇaṃ jiṇavarehi parkahidaṃ.
tassodayeṇa jῑvo aṇṇāṇῑ hodi ṇādavvo..

cārittapaḍiṇibaddhaṃ kasāyamidi jiṇavarehi parikahidaṃ.
tassodayeṇa jῑvo acaritto hodi ṇādavvo..

(jῑvādῑsaddahaṇaṃ sammattaṃ) Belief in the [existence and nature of the] soul and another [nine] padārthas is right faith; (tesimadhigamo nāṇaṃ) knowledge of the real nature of these nine [without doubt or error] is right knowledge; (rāgādi pariharaṇaṃ caraṇaṃ) neutral attitude without like or dislike [for the alien objects] is right conduct—(eso du mokkhapalio) these three constitute the path of self- realization/emancipation.

(Nicchayaṭṭhaṃ mottūṇa vidusā vavahāreṇa pavaṭṭhaṃti) Sage, keeping aside the ultimate aspect, do worldly activities on the basis of empirical aspect; (du paramaṭṭhamassidāṇa jadῑṇa kammakkhao hodi) however, only those wise ascetics are able to destroy the bondage of karma who maintain full faith in the ultimate nature of the self.

(Jahā) Just as (vatthassa sedabhāvo mala-vimeleṇocchaṇṇo ṇāsadi) the whiteness of the cloth is destroyed by the pervasion of dirt, (tahā) in the same way (miccha-ttamalocchaṇṇaṃ sammattaṃ khu ṇādavvaṃ) be it known that the right faith is defiled by the pervasion of (the dirt of) perverted belief.

(Jahā) Just as (vatthassa sedabhāvo mala-vimelanocchaṇṇo nāsadi) the whiteness of the cloth is destroyed by the pervasion of dirt, (taha) in the same way (aṇṇaṇaṃalocchaṇṇaṃ ṇāṇaṃ hodi ṇādavvaṃ) be it known that the right knowledge/cognition is defiled by the pervasion of [the dirt of] perverted knowledge.

(Jahā) Just as (vatthassa sedabhāvo mala-vimelaṇocchaṇṇo ṇāsadi) the whiteness of the cloth is destroyed by the pervasion of dirt, (taha pi) in the same way (kassāya-malocchaṇṇaṃ carittaṃ pi ṇādavvam) be it known that the right conduct is defiled by the pervasion of [the dirt of] passions.

(So savvaṇaṇadarisῑ) Though the soul (intrinsically) is omniscient, (ṇieṇa kammarayeṇa avacchaṇṇo) it is polluted/defiled by one's own [dirt of] karmic matter; hence it (saṃsāra-samāvaṇṇo savvaṃ savvado na vijjāṇadi) is unable to know/cognize every mode of every substance.

(Jiṇavarehi parikahidaṃ) The omniscients have declared that (sammattapaḍiṇibaddhaṃ micchattaṃ) the right faith is obstructed by the faith-deluding karma; (tassodayeṇa jῑvo micchādiṭṭhi tti ṇadavvo) hence be it known that due to its rise, the soul becomes mithyādṛṣṭi (one with deluded world-view) [i.e., fruition of the faith-deluding karma deludes the faith of the soul into perverted faith].

(Jiṇavarehi parikahidaṃ) The omniscients have declared that (ṇāṇassa paḍinibaddhaṃ aṇṇāṇaṃ) the Right knowledge is obscured by knowledge deluding karma; (tassodayena jῑva annāṇi hodi nādavvo) hence be it known that due to its rise, the soul becomes ajñānῑ [one devoid of knowledge) [i.e., its fruition deludes the soul into perverted knowledge].

(Jinvarehiparikahidam) The omniscients have declared that (cārittapaḍinibaddhaṃ kasāyam) the right conduct is obstructed by passions; (tassodayeṇa jῑvo acaritto hodi ṇādavvo) hence, be it known that due to its rise, the soul becomes acāritra [one devoid of conduct] [i.e., its fruition forces the soul in perverted conduct].


In these verses, the author describes the path for emancipation. First [in verse no. 4.11] he describes it in short. Right faith/belief, right knowledge and right conduct constitute the path for emancipation/liberation (mokṣa). The trio is known as "The Three Jewels". The faith or belief when qualified as right (samyagdarśana) is a kind of purified state of the consciousness that enables the soul to firmly believe in the truth as depicted in the scriptures by the omniscients. Empirically, knowledge and belief in the true nature of nine tattvas/padārthas (categories of truth) [enumerated in chapter 1, verse 13] is the first step in this direction. Transcendentally, however, it is the result of suppression or eradication of vision-deluding [darśana-mohanῑya] karma. Comprehension and proper understanding of these tattvas is right knowledge. The adjective samyag implies absence of doubt and/or error. Right conduct as conditioned by right faith and right knowledge is samyak cāritra.

Right knowledge (samyag jñāna) presupposes right belief (samyag darśana). In the absence of right world-view, the knowledge cannot be right because how can there be purity of knowledge if the self knows that it is impure? Similarly right conduct presupposes right belief and right knowledge. And composite of these three constitutes the pathway to emancipation. In other words, all three are indispensable factors of the path.

The author then deals with a complex and ticklish problem of maintaining equilibrium between the empirical and ultimate aspects of truth and reality. In the mundane life, performance of worldly activities is inevitable even for ascetics and sages [who have renounced their worldly status]. Possessing true wisdom and sagacity, a sage keeps both aspects of reality before him. The empirical aspect enables him to do all activities which are necessary for meeting his individual worldly needs as well as discharging his obligations/duties as a member of the society. However, his unshakable faith in the ultimate aspects of truth permits him to maintain equilibrium both as an individual and as a member of his religious order. His spiritual purity and non-absolutist beliefs enable him to look at both the roles—individual and social—he is required to play. Thus, without reducing his full faith in the pure psychic states of the soul as per the ultimate aspect, he performs his ritual and routine without flinching, because to him ritual is as important for his mundane state as faith and beliefs are for the transcendental one.

The author, then, goes on to describe the path for emancipation in detail. He, first uses a simple analogy to illustrate the defiling nature of the perversion resulting from the beginningless delusion. The three beginningless encumbrances are perverse belief, wrong cognition/knowledge and passions. Just as the quality of innate whiteness of (bleached) cloth is destroyed by the pervasion of alien dirt in actual life, so also the trio of pure innate qualities—faith, knowledge and conduct (darśana, jñāna and cāritra)—are defiled and polluted by the trio of perversions resulting from the fruition of deluding (mohanῑya) karma.

In the first place it should be noted that it is the 'whiteness' [which is a quality of the fabric/cloth] that is obliterated and not the fabric i.e., the substratum which is cloth. The latter remains intact and unaffected by the dirt, though by the change in quality—its pure (white) state—has become dirty. And secondly, by the use of suitable detergents and washing technique, the original whiteness can be completely restored. In the same way [applying the analogy to philosophy], the soul is capable of restoring its inherent purity by suitable spiritual discipline, but during its impure worldly state the capability of a completely adequate apprehension of the whole of reality/truth, is, for the time being, obscured and rendered ineffective. Hence, in the impure worldly state, apprehension of reality is neither pure nor perfect but piecemeal and fragmentary. Here again, the impairment is that of an attribute of the soul while the substance—the substratum of qualities and modes/states—remains intact and unaffected. And the attribute itself, being innate, can be fully recovered by proper technique of cleansing, i.e., removing the obscuring factor.

Finally, the author identifies, under the authority of the omniscient, each obscuring and defiling factor. Jains use the term mithyātva[1] meaning perversity to denote the principle which acts as primordial hindrance against the apprehension and belief in truth. The terms mithyādarśana, mithyādṛṣṭi, darśanamoha etc. are also used in the same sense. Darśanamoha is one of the eight main experiences.

Samyaktva also called Samyagdarśana is the opposite of mithyātva. In course of time, the soul, due to its inherent urge for purification, attains some purity and the potency of mithyātva is reduced and made ineffective to a significant extent usually the soul does not need any extraneous help but the progress may be accelerated due to the influence of instructions from sages who know the truth from direct experience. The purity of the soul is accompanied by radical change in outlook or world-view. It is defined as Śraddhāna for the truth and the śraddhāna or faith is explained as pratyayāvadhārana, that is, discursive determination.

Samyagjñāna (right knowledge) presupposes samyag­darśana (right world-view). That is, the right world-view makes it possible for the soul to realize, know and comprehend the reality as it is without error or doubt. In the absence of right world-view, the knowledge cannot be right. The purification of the world-view is, therefore regarded as sine quâ non of that of the knowledge (and conduct). Knowledge—jñāna, when infected with perverted world-view—mithyādarśana is really false—ajñāna. Thus, samyag­darśana is to be regarded as predilection for truth (tattvaruci) while what comprehends that truth is to be regarded as samyagjñāna. But both are born simultaneously though they are not identical, just as a lamp and its light are simultaneous but not identical. Samyagdarśana is the logical primus as opposed to chronological priority of samyagjñāna. Former purifies the latter and is also the ground for it.

The spiritual purification of the soul is accompanied by the subsidence or eradication of darśanamoha, the species of karma which deludes. It can also be said that the qualifying adjective 'samyaka' is basically derived from samyagdarśana but there is unanimity among different Jain thinkers regarding the synchronization of occurrence of samyagdarśana and samyagjñāna.

Jain philosophers give equal importance to conduct as to knowledge and predilection for truth. While samyagdarśana turns the soul in the right direction and samagjñāna illuminates the path, samyakcāritra takes it to the goal. Thus, conduct is the fulfillment of knowledge while self-realization/final emancipation is the fulfillment of conduct.

The karma which blocks samyakcāritra viz. cāritramoha, is the twin of darśanamoha, both being sub-types of the main species molianῑya karma. It manifests and asserts itself, mainly as fourfold passions (kaṣāya) viz., anger, arrogance, deceit and greed. The rise of passions obscures the capacity for abstinence from immoral and sinful activities, self-control, self-discipline and austerity constitute right conduct. They enhance the spiritual purity of the soul and overcome the weakness, thus, increasing its capacity for complete renouncement and reducing the potency of attachment (rāga) and aversion (dveṣa) which are the main planks of wrong conduct.

From the above it is clear that Jain philosophers did not accept nescience (ajñāna) alone as the cause of bondage as some other systems did. It is only one of the three conditions of bondage and the worldly existence. Bondage, in the ultimate analysis, results in the obstruction and mutilation of the various capabilities of the pure soul. These capabilities can be grouped-under three main heads-world-view (faith, belief), knowledge and conduct which form the trio-the three jewels. The appellation samyak (right or enlightened)-which means without doubt or error-is attached to their pure form while 'mithyā'-which means perverted-to their wrong form. Threefold conditions of the worldly existence-the perverted trio-require threefold antidotes. Stated differently, the eradication of the conditions of worldly existence having threefold potencies require counter-condition consisting of threefold counter-potencies.

(Idi cauttho puṇṇapāvādhiyāro samatto)

[Here ends the fourth chapter on Auspicious & Inauspicious Karma]

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