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HereNow4U.net :: Books Online | Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda | [5] Paṃcamo Āsavādhiyāro—Āśrava (Cause Of Influx Of Karma)  | Freedom From Bondage Is Relative

Samayasara - by Acharya Kundakunda ► [5] Paṃcamo Āsavādhiyāro—Āśrava (Cause Of Influx Of Karma) ► Freedom From Bondage Is Relative

Posted: 23.07.2010

cauviha aṇeyabheyaṃ baṃdhaṃte ṇāṇadaṃsaṇaguṇehiṃ.
 samaye-samaye jamhā teṇa abaṃdho tti ṇāṇῑ du..

jamhā du jahaṇṇādo ṇāṇaguṇādo puṇo vi pariṇamadi.
 aṇṇattaṃ ṇāṇaguṇo teṇa du so baṃdhago bhaṇido..

daṃsaṇaṇāṇacarittaṃ jaṃ pariṇamade jahaṇṇabhāveṇa.
 ṇāṇῑ teṇa du bajjhadi poggalakammeṇa viviheṇa..

(Jamhā cahuviha) As stated before, the fourfold conditions of [influx and bondage-physical series with the auxiliary causal potency] (ṇāṇa-daṃsaṇaguṇehiṃ samaye-samaye aṇeṇabheyaṃ baṃdhaṃte) affect the psychical states of consciousness each and every instant of time and determine bondages of various types; (ṇāṇῑ du abaṃdho tti) [but] the enlightened soul is [relatively] free from bondage.

(Jamhā du ṇāṇaguṇo) Because the strength of the purity of consciousness [at the very dawn of enlightenment] (jahaṇṇādo ṇāṇaguṇādo) is of minimum intensity, (puṇo vi aṇṇattaṃ pariṇamadi) and keeps on fluctuating [i.e., is not steady] (teṇa du so badhago bhaṇido) that is why it is said to be the condition of bondage of karma.

(Daṃsaṇā-ṇāṇa-carittaṃ jahaṇṇa bhāveṇa jaṃ pariṇamade) The spiritual purification of the three jewels—right world-view, knowledge, and conduct—is minimum to start with (teṇa du ṇāṇῑ viviheṇa poggalakammaṇa bajjhadi) that is why the enlightened [in spite of attaining enlightenment] is also subjected to the bondage of various types of karma.


In the preceding verses we briefly discussed how the soul attains enlightenment by its purity. In the above verses, the author underlines the necessity of further efforts to enhance the purity still further and augment its energy for final consummation and total freedom from bondage. The soul has succeeded in awakening the beginningless hold of the perversity of world-view but this does not mean the end of the struggle.

The important thing is to further reinforce the strength of all the three jewels which has attained only the minimum or lowest strength at the moment. The influx of karmic matter due to the primordial cause—mithyātva has been blocked but the other three openings i. e. conditions of inflow (āśravas) are still wide open and the bondage continues. The soul has to pass through number of stages from the lowest to the highest stage of spiritual development. The soul acquired right vision but is lacking in spiritual strength. And, so inspite of the right world-view and right knowledge, it cannot, totally, abstain from the wrong path. For further spiritual advancement it must develop more strength of vision, knowledge and self-control.

savve puvvaṇibaddhā du paccayā saṃti sammadiṭṭhissa.
 uvaogappāogaṃ baṃdhaṃte kammabhāveṇa..

saṃta du ṇiruvabhojjā bālā itthῑ jaheva purusassa.
 baṃdhadi te uvabhojje taruṇῑ itthῑ jaha ṇarassa..

hodūṇa ṇῑruvabhojjā taha baṃdhadi jaha havaṃti uvabhojja.
 sattaṭṭhavihā bhūdā ṇāṇāvaraṇādibhāvehiṃ..

edeṇa kāraṇeṇa du sammādiṭṭhῑ abaṃdhago bhaṇido.
 āsavabhāvābhāve ṇa paccayā baṃdhagā bhaṇidā..

rāgo doso moho ya āsavā ṇatthi sammadiṭṭhissa.
 tamhā āsavabhāveṇa viṇā hedū ṇa paccayā hoṃti..

hedū caduvviyappo aṭṭhaviyappassa kāraṇaṃ havadi.
 tesiṃ pi ya rāgādῑ tesimabhāve ṇa bajjhaṃti..

(Sammadiṭṭhissa puvvaṇibaddhā du savve paccayā saṃti) All the dravyāśravas (physical causes of the influx of karma), already bound by the soul who is samyagdṛṣṭi [possessed of enlightened world-view] in his pre-enlightenment state, remain in sattā [dormant existence prior to the state of udaya (rise)]; (uvaogappāogaṃ kammabhāveṇa baṃdhate) [in due course] in accordance with the prayoga [exercising] of the upayoga [activity of soul], through the psychic dispositions [such as attachment and the like] they [purvabaddhapratyayā] become the cause of bondage of karma.

(Saṃtā du ṇiruvabhojja) In the state of sattā [i.e., state of bondage but before the state of fruition] they cannot yield their fruit and thus cannot consummated; (jaheva purisassa bālā itthi) just as a man who has married an immature [minor] girl, cannot consummate the union immediately [because the female of the union is not fit for the purpose] (te uvabhojje baṃdhadi) [later on the same karma] coming to fruition becomes the condition of new bondage (jaha ṇarassa taruṇi itthi) just as the same girl attains majority and becomes mature and fit for the consummation of the union [and then fascinates her husband].

(Ṇiruvabhojjā hodūṇa jaha uvabhojjā havanti) Just as the dravya karma [bound in the past] which was unfit for acting as a condition for new bondage [not having come to fruition] becomes potent in course of time, in the same way (ṇāṇāvaraṇādi bhāvehiṃ sattaṭṭhavihā bhūdā) various species of karma—seven species when the life—span-determining karma is not bound and eight species, [when the same is bound, once in a lifetime]—are determined.

(Edeṇa kāraṇeṇa du) Basically, this is why (sammādiṭṭhῑ abaṃdhago bhaṇido) the enlightened soul with the right vision is considered free from the bondage of new karma; (āsava-bhāvābhāve paccayā bandhagā ṇa bhaṇidā) because in the absence of bhāva karma [psychic state of affection etc.], dravya karma by itself is impotent as a condition of bondage.

(Rāgo doso ya moho āsavā sammadiṭṭhissa ṇatthi) The enlightened soul [with right world-view and vision] is free from the causes of influx (bhāva karma) such as attachment, aversion, delusion (tamhā āsavabhāveṇa viṇā paccayā hedū ṇa hoṃti) and without bhāva karma dravya karma is ineffective as the cause of influx and bondage.

(Caduvviyappo hedu aṭṭhaviyappassa kāraṇaṃ havadi) The fourfold conditions viz. perverted world-view etc. become the causal agents for the bondage of eight species of karma (ca tesiṃ pi rāgādῑ tesῑmabhāve ṇa bajjhaṃti) and the bhāva karma viz., attachment etc., in turn, cause the fourfold conditions. In the absence of psychic attachment, there is no bondage. That is why the enlightened soul with right vision is said to be free from bondage [because there is no attachment and the like].


In the preceding verses, it was said that the attainment of right vision is not sufficient to enable the soul to reach the final liberation, and the soul, in spite of enlightenment, continues the influx of karmic matter. This may perhaps, lower the value of right vision in the reader's view. In the above verses, therefore, the author wants to reaffirm the fundamental importance of the right vision (samyag­dṛṣṭi) and establish its correct values, so that the unprecedented supreme effort of the soul for attaining it is not undervalued.

We have already pointed out that the karma does not yield its fruit as soon as it is bound. It remains inactive for some time before producing the result. This period of inactivity is called the period of non-fruition (abādhakāla) and the karma is said to be in the state of sattā [unproductive existence]. It comes to rise [udaya] in order to deliver its fruit after this period and the rise then continues uninterrupted till the end of the duration of bondage [sthitibandha]. The author uses an analogy to explain this important principle of the doctrine of karma. If a man marries a very young—underage—girl, he will be unable to consummate the union until the girl comes of age, attains maturity, and is fit for the purpose. Similarly, some karma bounded in the pre-enlightenment period, might come to rise after the attainment of the enlightenment and become the cause of the influx of new karmic matter and consequent bondage of various species of karma. The bondage is usually of seven main species out of eight and once in every life-time the eighth species viz. life-span-determining karma will be bound.

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