Svasti - Essays in Honour of Prof. Hampa Nagarajaiah ► Section I: Epigraphy, Iconography, Manuscripts ► Donation Pattern to the Jinalayas

Posted: 14.12.2010

This article is a revised and enlarged version of the article published in Kevalabodhi. The details are as follows: ‘Kannada Inscriptions of Jaina Affiliation from Andhra Pradesh’, Kevala Bodhi (Buddhist and Jaina History of the Deccan) - The BSL Commemorative Volume, (Ed.) Aloka Parasher-Sen, Vol. II, pp. 291-298.


Donation Pattern to the Jinalayas as gleaned from Kannada Inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh

The Kannada inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh throw light on various aspects of political, social, economic and religious conditions that prevailed during the early medieval and medieval period.  There are as many as one thousand Kannada inscriptions that have been reported from Andhra Pradesh and we may sure that many would see the light of the day in the coming years. In this sequel, an attempt is made to understand the Kannada inscriptions of Jaina affiliation from Andhra Pradesh.  Out of one thousand Kannada records, very few inscriptions provide information pertaining to Jaina religious order and also the socio-economic aspects. The inscriptions belong to Rashtrakuta, Chalukyas of Vemulavada, Chalukyas of Kalyana, Nolambas and the Vijayanagara dynasties, which fact testifies that Jainism was popular and enjoyed better status for over a period of five centuries. Of all these dynasties, it was during the Chalukyas of Kalyana times that Jainism received greater impetus and patronage, as attested to by the large number of their inscriptions. As already pointed out, it is attempted to reconcile and reconstruct the socio-economic aspects from the data as recorded in the Kannada inscriptions found in this region.  The Kannada epigraphs of Jaina affiliation are found from the districts of Anantapur, Hyderabad, Karimnagar, Kurnool, Mahaboobnagar, Medak, Nalgonda Nizamabad and Warangal.  And the maximum number of inscriptions is from Anantapur while the least is from Warangal. 

The earliest inscription is from Velamjala dated to 907 A.D. and belongs to the reign of the Rashtrakuta king Akalavarsha (Krishna II). It records a gift of 100 mattars of land and a garden to a basadi by a certain Ravichandrayya, a subordinate of the king[1]. Another inscription[2] from Halaharavi also belongs to the same dynasty and mentions that the feudatory of the king Nityavarsha (Govinda IV) was Kannara who was ruling over Sindavadi-1000.[3] The latter’s wife Chandiyabbe is said to have constructed a basadi in Nandavara and endowed it with land and 3 gold gadyanas.  Kannara seems to have been a protector of both the Jainas and the Saivas. 

Two more records from Tummalagudem also belong to the same period, viz, 10th century and they state about the gifts given to the Jinalayas. The first record[4] mentions the gift of wet land along with the income from siddhaya to the Jayadhira-Jinalaya by the Chief Ratta Sankaragandarasa bearing the epithets Jayadhira, Bhuvanaikarama, Abhimana-dhavala, Rattarameru, etc. The second epigraph[5] registers a gift of ni[ru]nela by a certain Sankaragandarasa who had a title Rattarameru to the Jayadhira Jinalaya.

It is a known fact that the Chalukyas of Vemulavada patronized Jainism. A record[6] dated 968 A.D. from Repaka refers to the reign of the king Arikesari and introduces a Chief by name Vijaya Gavunda and records his gift of lands to a Jinalaya built by him.  The record is in both Kannada and Sanskrit. The Sanskrit verse gives the genealogy of a family of disciples of the Jaina faith who were ruling Atukuru-70 and Pammi-12.  This proves that the strings of administration were in the hands of persons belonging to the Jaina faith.

The oft-quoted Kurkiyala inscription[7] belongs to the time of Arikesari II of the Chalukyas of Vemulavada. It mentions the installation of the two adyanta jinas, Chakresvari, i.e., first and the last Jaina Tirthankaras on the hillcok called Vrishabharigi and the construction of a basadi called Tribhuvanatilaka, a tank called Kavitagunarnava and a garden named Madanavilasa by Jinavallabha, son of Bhimapayya and Vabbanabbe and the younger brother of the famous poet Pampa alias Kavitagunarnava.  The inscription furnishes valuable information regarding the genealogy and origin of Kannada poet Pampa, the author of the Vikramarajunavijaya, whose ancestors are stated to have belonged to Vangiparru in Kamma-nadu. The inscription being trilingual is in prose and poetry in the characters of about the 10th century A.D..

During the period of Chalukyas of Kalyana, we notice that Jinalayas or basadis were built and endowed with gifts. The majority of the records under review belong to the Chalukyas of Kalyana period, unlike the earlier period. An epigraph[8] of 1012 A.D. now preserved in the Hyderabad Musuem refers to the reign of the Chalukya king Tribhuvanamalladeva camping on the bank of a streamlet Payani with a view to conquer the North and overthrow Bhijadeva of Malva and registers a grant of lands to the Jina Parshvadeva of Indra Jinalaya at Chilkuru.        

Another record[9] from the same Museum dated 1027 A.D. records the gift of 50 mattars of black land, 50 mattars of akade, 1 ghuna for the lamp and 1 mattar for a flower garden in the rajadhani (capital) Periya Mosangi to the Jaina basadi constructed by Basavoja under the direction of Sodera Vadeyora Revanayya at the request of Tambipattana Basavoja by the king’s daughter Sahaja Vedangi, Somaladevi, while camping at the Appayana-vidu of Pulipodaru with the consent of her ministers. In this record a princess made the donation.  Before making the donation, she got the approval of her ministers, a fact which underlines the power she enjoyed in making donations or taking decisions.

An inscription[10] from Saidapur, belonging to the reign of Jagadekammalladeva as ruling from the capital Pottalakere in 1034 A.D. records that the king at the request of Vaidyaratnakara Pranacharya Aggalayya made a gift to a Jaina temple Buddhasena Jinalaya at Mucchupalli constructed by Aggalayya himself and Vaidyaratnakara Jinalaya at Ikkuriki in Alur-40 which was a Kampana of Kollipake-7000.  The Sanskrit portion of the record extols the greatness of the physician Aggalayya, a specialist in surgery and his capacity to cure severe diseases.  A certain Jakabbe’s Katte basadi is also referred to in the record.  The importance of the record, like the previous instance, lies in the fact that the king makes the donation on the request of the person who constructed the Jinalaya.

A record of 1051 A.D. from Sanigaram is interesting[11]. It refers to the reign of the king Trailokyamalladeva and his Mahasamanta Kakatiya Betarasa.  This records that Beta’s Pergade Vaijaraja’s son Naranayya renovated the Duddahmalla Jinalaya of Sanagara and endowed it with a ratana after obtaining the consent of the local gamundas Muppadayya and Punnireddi.  Kakatiya Beta mentioned here is obviously Beta I. It is curious to note the ratana i.e., pulley is gifted to the temple. It is very rare to gift such items to the temple.  We have very few references of making such gifts to the religious institutions. 

Besides endowing the temples with land and other gifts, it was also a common practice during the medieval and early medieval period to donate the taxes and levies.  Generally, the king or a person authorized by him was empowered to make such donations. An inscription, dated 1056 A.D., from Kolanupaka is interesting.[12] It opens with a Sanskrit verse describing the earth followed by a Kannada verse in the Kanda metre in praise of Jagadekamalladeva. It begins with the well-known Chalukyan prasasti, Manavyasa gotram, etc., and refers to the Chalukya family as the birth place of Samasta-Lokasraya, Vishnuvardhana, Vijayaditya and other famous kings, the subduers of the Nala, the Durjaya, the Prithu-Kadamba, the Maurya, the Rashtrakuta and the Kalachuri dynasties. Then it mentions Trailokyamalladeva ruling from Malikonda-Uppayanavidu. On the said date, S. 978, Durmukhi, Pushya, Punnami (15), Uttarayana Sankramana equivalent to Tuesday, 24th December 1056 A.D., the king made a gift of tala-vritti, bitti, pannasa, kere, nirunela, ratanam, tomta, kereyabu and manneya and cess to the ascetics of the Kuruma matha-sthanas, the gurus of Jina-basadis and temples in Jattupura in Kollipaka freeing them thereby from impediments at the request of Preggada Chavundayya and Dandanayaka Kavanabhatta. We have references to the donation of land and other gifts to the basadis.[13]

Another record from the same place viz, Kolanupaka is important as it registers restoration of a grant made earlier. The epigraph[14] records the restoration of some lands in Juvvikunte and Nidungaluru originally granted by Sankragauda of the Rashtrakuta family by a copper plate charter to the basadis at Revundi and Nerila built by him and subsequently alienated from the basadis unjustly, by the queen at the request of Mahasandhivigrahi dandanayaka Kesimayya and on the representation of Rebbi-setti and the Karanas headed by Perggade Appanayya on the occasion of a solar eclipse.  Mahasamanta Melarasa was then governing Kollipake-7000 in 1067 A.D.. This record proves that the queen was also empowered to take decision in the administration, while the princess was not empowered to act on her own.

However, during the time of the Chalukyas of Kalyana, along with land, a flower garden, oil-mill and house-sites were also gifted as a donation package.  This is true in respect of both Saiva and Vaishnava temples. A record[15] from Konakondla mentions Mahamandalesvara Joyimayyarasa, subordinate of Tribhuvanamalladeva, as ruling over Sindavadi-1000 in 1081 A.D.. It states that, for the service of the Jaina god in the basadi called Chatta-Jinalaya erected by Nalikabbe in memory of her husband in Kondakundeya-tirtha, Joyimayyarasa made a grant of 30 mattars of land, a flower garden, an oil-mill and 8 house sites. A widow Nalikabbe erected a Jinalaya in memory of her husband, which is interesting from sociological point of view. During the period under review, the widows also enjoyed some respectable social status and were not looked down by the contemporary society.

An inscription[16] from Alladurg registers a gift of two martars of gadde (wet land) for feeding the ascetics in the Kirtivilasa Santi-Jinalaya by the king’s subordinate Mahamandalesvara Ahavamalla Permanadi. Kamaladeva Siddhanti received the gift in 1084 A.D.. Kamala Siddhanti was probably the head of the Jaina temple.  Kirtivilasa is the title of the king and the temple was probably named after him or got constructed by him.

A record from Pudur dated Chalukya Vikrama year 12, Prabhava, Paushya, Amavasya equivalent to Sunday 26th December 1087 A.D., states that the Mahamandalesvara Hallavarasa of Pumduru who is described as Muchukundurp-Puravaresvara, etc., granted betel leaves, betel nuts, lands, shops, house-sites etc., in Punduru and the income from levy of 2 pana from every village in Ayije-300, on the occasion of Uttarayana Sankranti to the Pallava Jinalaya belonging to the Dravila Samgha after laving the feet of his preceptor Kanakasena bhattaraka.[17] Yet another record[18] from Gobbur, Raichur district of Karnataka, now preserved in the State Museum at Hyderabad records the gift of money at specified rates by the nakharas,the officers of the mint (Kammatada-adhikarigalu) and the Kammatakaras of agrahara Hiriya Gobburu, to the Brahma Jinalaya for conducting the Chaitra-pavitra in 1109 A.D.. The grant of money was a rarity during the Chalukyas of Kalyana period.  The donation, in the majority of cases, included land, both wet and dry, flower garden, and house-sites.  As an exception, in this record, income from levy, shops, betel leaves and betel nuts were also gifted.  The granting of betel leaves and betel nuts to the temple occupied an important place in the religious rites from early medieval period and continued even during the Vijayanagara period.

Another epigraph from Kolanupaka registers the gift of 2 mattars of gadde (wet land) and flower garden and a gana (oil-mill) to the Jinalaya built by him by Mandalika Gomarasa. The gift was entrusted to Chandrasenacharya, probably the priest of the Jinalaya.[19]

The Bairanipalli inscription mentions the installation of a Jaina image and the gifts of a mango garden, 20 mattars of karamba land and other lands for repairs of the temple and feeding of the ascetics by Biramaraddi, the dandanayaka of the capital Bhuvanagiri and the 120 karanams of Bekkallu[20] in 1125-26 A.D.. At the end of the inscription there is a lengthy description of the donor in Kannada verse, wherein he is said to have belonged to vitti-vamsa of the Raddi caste.  Other gifts to the same Jinalaya by Punniraddi of Nanganuru and Reviraddi of Vallampatla are recorded. In this record along with dandanayaka, the officials joined hands in making the donation. The gifting of mango garden to the temple is interesting. The mention that the donor belonged to vitti-vamsa is very interesting.  The term vitti is a derived from the Sanskrit word vista or visti and later got transformed to vitti in Prakrit and later got into Kannada.  Vitti or Bitti in Kannada means free labour. Even in the Tamil inscriptions the term vetti is found that is equivalent to vitti or bitti.  In course of time, the practice of free labour was dropped but survived as a tax.  Kannada inscriptions have numerous such references of vitti being used as a tax term.  The profession of collection of taxes by the tax-collectors was hereditary and their lineage is referred to in the inscriptions as vitti-vaṃsa or vitti-kula (persons belonging to a tax-collector’s lineage).  It would not be wrong to identify the person mentioned in this record as belonging to such a tax collector’s lineage. Hampa. Nagarajaiah has rightly pointed out that such persons belonged to Jaina faith and were subordinates of Chalukyas of Kalyana.

The mercantile community also never lagged behind in making donations to the temple.  An inscription from Jadacherla refers to the reign of Yuvaraja Tailapa ruling over Kanudr-nadu and Bammisetti of the Virabalanjiga community has caused the construction of a Chaityalaya, the deity being Parsvanatha at Ganagapura, after washing the feet of Meghachnadra Siddhantadeva in 1125-26 A.D..  It also refers to the grant given by the merchant guild, Ayyavole 500, Muvattaru bidugalu, Maridamada, samasta ubhaya nanadesiya settis, for the maintenance of the Chaityalaya.[21] Meghachandra Siddharathadeva belonged to Kanurgana, Meshapashanagachha.  In the record the date mentioned is S. 1047 and the local ruler is king Bhulokamalla.  However according to other records available, Tribhuvanamalla was still ruling in 1125 A.D.

Another record, of the time of Chalukya king Somesvara IV, from Ujjili registers the gift of the income derived from the tax Vaddaravula and a tank with the adjoining land for the offerings and worship of the god in the Jaina temple, called Baddi Jinalaya, situated in the fort of Jivolal, the capital of Kallakelagu Nadu.[22]  The gift was made after laving the feet of Indrasena Pandita, the priest of the temple, by Bhanudeva, the army officer of the same nadu with the concurrence of Kesavayya of the region.

An undated record from Togarakunta records the grant of two flower gardens and house sites by the Dandanayaka Kommanayya and others to the basadi of Chandraprabhadeva at Togarikunte in Kudiyape-40 for conducting worship in the basadi. The gift was made for the merit of the Mahamandalesvara Kumara Tailapadeva.[23] The record refers at the end to Padmanandi. The mention of Prince Kumara Tailapadeva would show that the record belongs to the reign of Vikramaditya VI.

Like the earlier record another inscription from the same place registers gifts of land and flower gardens for worship and offerings in the temple which belonged to Dravila Sanghasena gana and Kaurar gachchha, that was situated in front of Ujjilivolal the capital of the region Kallakelagu-500.  The gift was by Panditya, disciple of Vadiraja in the lineage of illustrious Vadireja.  Other gifts by the local mercantile community were also made to the deity.[24] There are numerous evidences of making images of tirthankaras and their installiation in the temple by philanthropic donors. Inscriptions from Hyderabad[25] and Peddatumbalam[26] mention that the images of Pamchaparameshthi were made by Devanna, son of Senabova Achanna of Erambarage a disciple (Chatta) of Madhavachandra-bhattaraka, who belonged to the Mula-samgha, Desiya-gana, pustaka-gachchha and Yimgalesvara-bali Gommata-Parsva-Jina was caused to be made by the Mahapurusha Bochikabbe, the wife of Chenchi-setti, a disciple of Chandrakirtti bhattaraka of the Mula-samgha, Desi-gana, Postakagachcha and Kondakund-anvaya.

Similarly another record[27] from Hyderabad mentions that Bopana, son of Emmeya Prithigauda of Kopana-tirtha and his wife Malauve and the lay disciple of Rajaguru mandalacharya Maghanadisiddhanta-chakravarti caused the image of Chauvisa-tirthankara (i.e., the 24th Tirthankaras) to be made and presented to the basadi built by Madana-danayaka of Mula-Samgha and Desiya-gana.

The Gangapuram record[28] is important from two aspects. First it refers to the construction of a Jina-griha and the consecration of the image of Chennaparsvanatha therein by Mahavaddavyavahari Manigara Kalisetti of Tumbala and to a gift of income from levies on commodities such as areca and other items for the worship of and offerings to the same.  It contains an eulogy of Nayakirtideva who was perhaps the recipient of the gift.  The second aspect is that the mention of the officers Sunkadhikari and Addasunkadadhikari in the record show that they concurred with the merchants to donate the income from levies on commodities. This suggests that they were empowered to divert the income of the State to temples.

A record from Koratla[29] registers a gift of land for the service of Rattamartanda Jinalaya, when Padmanandi Siddhantadeva was the acharya. At the end a Jaina sect of Koravattu ghosta, belonging to the Kornurugana and Tintinigachha, is mentioned. The Chilkuru inscription, now preserved in the Hyderabad Museum is interesting.[30] It registers the gift for the repairs and maintenance of the Antara basadi of Chikura by Sridharavarmadeva and Kirtivarmadeva the Perggades of the king on the occasion of the king’s pattabandha (coronation).  Mention of some of the images of Jaina Tirthankaras to whom the gifts are made by the local people is stated in the record.

Another epigraph[31] from the same Museum registers the gift of 100 marturs of land, 3 marturs of garden to Parsvanathadeva of Indra-jinalaya of Chilkura by Dandanayaka Padmanabha Ailarasa governing the Lombalika-70, on his return journey with the king after Uttara-digvijaya (northern conquest) over Malava and defeating Bhojadeva.     

The inscription[32] from Tadapatri is important from the point of view of Kannada literature. The record is in beautiful Kannada verses and consists of 25 poems. It goes back to the reign of Udayaditya, son of Somideva and Kanchaladevi, ruling from Tatparapura (the present Tadapatri) and registers the genealogy of the sthanacharyas of the Chandranatha, Parsvanatha basadi at Tatparapura.  It records that a grant was given by Udayaditya Maharaja to the basadi for repairs after washing the feet of Meghachandradeva, the acharya of the basadi.  The complete inscription can be called a small Champu Kavya.  The statement that ‘Andhra Dharanitala’ is to the east of the Kuntala desa is noteworthy.

During the time of Nolambas also Jainism continued to flourish. A record[33] from Amarapuram, dated 1277 A.D., registers that Mallisetti, son of Sangayana Bommisetti and Melavve, the favourite disciple of Balendu Maladhari Deva who was the senior pupil of Tribhuvana kirti Ravula of Ingalisvara Mulasangha, Desiya gana, Kondakundanvaya and Pustakagachcha, gave at Tammadihalli, the 2000 areca trees which belonged to his share to Prasanna Parsvadeva of the basadi at Tailamgere known as Bramhajinalaya.  The priest of this temple was Challapillai, a Jaina Brahmana of Bhuvalokanatha Nallur in Bhuvalokanatha-vishaya, and a sub-division of Ponnamaravati-sime, north of Dakshina Madhure in the southern Pandyan country. Challapillai is also referred to as Sayanagiri and was a dear disciple of Balendu Maladharideva. From the produce of this garden land, the construction of the basadi from its upana to stupi, the mahamandapa, Bhadra, Lakshmi mandapa, gopura, parisutra (enclosure), Vandanamale (festoons), Manasthamba, Sampurna vahana and Makara torana was done. The present inscription proves that the produce from a garden is enough to construct a temple.  It is for us to guess the worth of produce from such a garden. Another aspect is that the Jaina temple closely followed the architectural pattern adopted by the Hin.du temples.

Another undated record,[34] probably belonging to 13th century, from the same place mentions that a basadi was caused to be made by a disciple of Balendu Maladharideva belonging to Tribhuvana Kirti Ravula of Ingalisavara belonging to Mulasangha, Desiyagana Konda Kundanvaya and Pustakagachcha. The vritti here was held by Challapillaideva.

The inscription[35] from Haresamudram is quite important.  As it is undated and badly damaged the full purport of the nature of the record is not understood completely. It records that Bijaya Mahadevi was ruling Baraguru in Polalinadu granted by Nolambdhiraja (?) Siyavura (Sira) was ruled by Akkabbe and Trailokyavolalu by Dommabbe.  It seems that they granted some land to a basadi.  Penjeru is also mentioned here.  The two queens were administering the two nadus and they jointly granted some lands to the basadi.  This would prove that the women also were actively involved in the administration.

Even during the Vijayanagara period, Jainism continued to occupy a considerable position and received due patronage from the royal house of early rulers. An epigraph[36] from Rayadurga refers to the reign of the Vijayanagara king Harihara and by the command of the king Bhogaraja set up the god Ananta-Jinesvara in 1355 A.D..  His preceptor was Maghanandi, disciple of Amarakirtti of the Nandi-sangha, Balatkara-gana, Sarasvata-gachchha and Kundakund-anvaya.

From the above inscriptions a clear donation pattern could be made out. It is gathered that the males dominated over females in donating to the temple.  In as many as 34 instances males have donated in contrast with 5 donations by females. This suggests that the males dominated in the society. If the individual status of the donors is considered, the Chiefs or Mahamandalesvaras or immediate subordinates of the king occupy the top slot, followed by individuals. We have evidences to substantiate that queens occupied a prominent position.  In as many as 5 instances they have contributed to the Jinalayas followed by mercantile community with 4 and kings with 3 instances.  This proves that the women folk were involved in making donations and shows the status enjoyed by them.  It is curious to note that women from lower rung were not involved in this activity while the women occupying higher social order were actively absorbed in pious activities.  Even among the queens, some of them were holding the strings of administration and were empowered to act independently.  A few exceptions are also noticed in this regard.

The Jinalayas or basadis received lands for their maintenance in most instances. Usually gadde or nirunela i.e., wet lands, were gifted to the temple.  Various types of lands like black soil land; karamba land, etc. were donated. The purpose of such donation was for conducting worship, feeding ascetics, maintenance, repairs and renovations and for the construction of the basadis. Marturs or mattar or marttur are the standard linear land measures that we come across in the inscriptions. And it varied from 2 mattars to 100 mattars, depending on the economic potentialities of the donors who donated it to the temple. Besides land, flower garden, mango garden and house-sites were donated to the temple as a donation package. Normally, either house-site or flower garden or land, either wet or dry is given.  Here, in the majority of cases, especially during the time of Chalukyas of Kalyana we notice that donations are made as a package.  There are also instances of giving away only land. In one example we have a reference of 2000 areca trees being donated to the Jinalaya. This fact suggests that areca, a cash crop, had economic implications both in society as well as in the religious institutions. There are a very few instances of making money donations to the temple and gold gadyana was money received by the basadis.

Income from taxes, levies and cess were also diverted to the temple. Siddhaya, tala-vritti, bitti, pannasa, and manneya are some of the taxes that we come across in the epigraphs.  In addition to the above gifts, interestingly ratana i.e., pulley is also donated.  Tanks, oil-mill and other types of gifts were also donated. 


Abbreviations and Bibiliography

APAREp = Andhra Pradesh Annual Report on Epigraphy, Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.

APGAS = Andhra Pradesh Government Archaeological Series, Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.

AREp. = Annual Report on Indian Epigraphy, Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi.

Bharati, Andhra Patrika, Madras (Now discontinued).

EA = Epigraphia Andhrica, Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. 

EC (Old) = Epigraphia Carnatica (Old), Govt. of Karnataka, Mysore. 

Hampa Nagarajaiah, Chandrakode, (Collection of Research Papers in Kannada), Kannada University, Hampi,Vidyaranya, 1997.

HAS = Hyderabad Archaeological Series, Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.

IAP, Kr. = Inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh - Karimnagar, Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.

IAP, Nal = Inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh - Nalgonda, Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.

IAP, Wr = Inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh - Warangal, Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.

KIAP = Kannada Inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh, Vasudevan C. S. (Ed.), Kannada University,Hampi, Vidyaranya, 1999. 

SII = South Indian Inscriptions, Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi.

Table showing various donations made to the Jinalayas


Name of the Donor

Type of Donation



(in A.D.)




100 mattar of land and garden






Land and 3 gold gadyana


10th century



Ratta Sankaragandarasa

Wet land and Siddhaya


10th century



Ratta Sankaragandarasa



10th century



Vijaya gavunda


Chalukyas of Vemulavada





Garden and tank

Chalukyas of Vemulavada

10th century





Chalukyas of Kalyana





50 mattars of black land,

50 mattars of akade, 1 ghuna for lamp, 1 mattar for flower garden

Chalukyas of Kalyana






Chalukyas of Kalyana





Renovation and Ratana

Chalukyas of Kalyana


Ratana (Pulley)



Tala vritti, bitti, pannasa,  kere, nirunela, ratanam, tomta, keyeabu, manneya and cess to ascetics, gurus of Jina-basadi

Chalukyas of Kalyana





Restoration of lands

Chalukyas of Kalyana





Oil mill, flower garden, 8 house site, 300 mattars of land

Chalukyas of Kalyana




Mahamandalesvara Ahavamalla Permanadi

2 mattars of gadde

Chalukyas of Kalyana


Wet land


Mahamandalesvara Muchukundurp Puravaresvara

Betel leaves, betel nuts, lands, shops, house sites and income from levy of pana from every village in Ayije-300

Chalukyas of Kalyana




Kammatada-adhikari and Kammatagaras


Chalukyas of Kalyana


Mint Officer and Mint Masters


Mandalika Gomarasa

2 mattars of gadde and flower garden, gana

Chalukyas of Kalyana

12th century



Birmareddi of Vitti Vamsa

20 mattars of karamba land, Mango garden and other lands

Chalukyas of Kalyana




Merchant guild - Ayyavole 500, Muvattaru bidugalu, Maridamada, samasta ubhaya nanadesiya settis


Chalukyas of Kalyana





Tax of village and land

Chalukyas of Kalyana

12th century



Dandanayaka Kommanayya and others

2 flower garden and house sites

Chalukyas of Kalyana

12th century




Land and flower garden

Chalukyas of Kalyana

12th century



Mahavaddavyavahari Manigara Kalisetti

Income of Commodities - areca and other items

Chalukyas of Kalyana

12th century





Chalukyas of Kalyana

12th century



Sridharavermadeva and Kirtivarmadeva


Chalukyas of Kalyana

12th century



Dandanayaka Padmanabha

3 marturs of garden

Chalukyas of Kalyana

12th century



Udayaditya Maharaja


Chalukyas of Kalyana

12th century




2000 areca trees

Chalukyas of Kalyana


From the produce of this garden land, the construction of the basadi from its upana to stupi, the mahamandapa, Bhadra, Lakshmi mandapa, gopura, parisutra (enclosure), Vandanamale (festoons), Manasthamba, Sampurna vahana and Makara torana was done


Akkabbe and Dommabbe


Chalukyas of Kalyana

13th century


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