A Note On The Pāsa Tradition In The Universal History Of The Digambaras And Śvetāmbaras

Posted: 23.12.2007
Updated on: 09.07.2015

International Journal of Jaina Studies
(Online) Vol. 3, No. 2 (2007) 1-60



Jain studies have so far concentrated on Śvetāmbara texts because those of the Digambaras were hardly available. The late professor Upadhye, to whom this contribution is dedicated, has done much to change this disparity which enabled the present author to edit, translate and comment from an important 9th century text, Guṇabhadra’s Mahāpurāṇa, a Universal History, the life of the Jina Pāsa who is popular in both Jain churches.


A Note On The Pāsa Tradition In The Universal History Of The Digambaras And Śvetāmbaras


Guṇabhadra, Mahāpurāṇa, Utt. 73 (Pārśva)

in memory of A. N. Upadhye

The 9th century C.E. was one of vivid display of activity on the part of both Śvetambara and Digambara authors of whom we possess works of, e.g., Śīlaṅka, Puṣpadanta, Jinasena and his pupil Guṇabhadra. They all wrote a Universal History (mahāpurāṇa), a hagiography, that is, of the 24 Jinas, 12 Cakravartins (emperors) and 3 x 9 other heroes. The Digambara monks Jinasena and Guṇabhadra composed their Sanskrit kāvya in two parts: the former, called Ādipurāṇa, consists of 47 chapters (parvan), 42 of which were written by Jinasena and deal with the lives of the first Jina, Ṛṣabha, and of the first emperor (cakravartin), Bharata. The other 5 and the 30 chapters of the latter part, the Uttarapurāṇa, were authored by Guṇasena, who also wrote the Ātmanuśāsana. As the Epilogue (Praśasti) tells us, in the rule of the Rāṣṭrakūṭa King Kṛṣṇa II Akālavarṣa the final Triṣaṣṭilakṣaṇa-mahāpurāṇa was dedicated on June 23rd 897 C.E. by Guṇabhadra's pupil Lokasena (Glasenapp 1926: 331). The chapter on the life of Pāsa, or Pārśva, as the 23rd "fordmaker" (Tīrthakara or Tīrthakṛt) is wrongly called in Sanskrit (see note 8 infra), is edited and translated below.

Pārśva is very popular in both Jain denominations,[1] to the extent that he not only had his place in the Universal Histories, but was also given separate hymnic compositions, a survey of which is given in Madhusudan Dhaky's contribution to the collection of papers read at a seminar in Delhi in 1987. For a general comparison of the various versions of the Pārśva hagiography see Bruhn 1954: 95.

Alsdorf's remark about Śīlāṅka's Cauppanna-mahāpurisa-cariya (9th century C.E.), viz that "parts of it are very condensed and even incomplete; from the point of view of the content it is far inferior to Hemacandra's work," (1974: 132 note 3) may mutatis mutandis also be applied to Guṇabhadra's Uttarapurāṇa where the meaning of a stanza sometimes cannot be understood without a parallel text such as Hemacandra's Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (1159-72 C.E.), as in vs 66 below.. Guṇabhadra's kāvya text presupposes a thorough familiarity with the subject. For that reason it may be useful to list the various rebirths of the adversaries Kamaṭha and Marubhūti up to Śambara and Pārśva; the names in Bhāvadeva's Pārśvanāthacaritra, when different, are given in brackets:

9. Marubhūti

9. Kamaṭha (Kaṭha)

12. elephant

23. cock with head of snake

24. Sahasrara god inhabitant

29. Dhūmaprabhā (Paṅcamavani) hell

28. Raśmivega (Kiraṅgavega)

30. boa constrictor (great snake)

30. Acyutakalpa deity

36. 6th hell inhabitant

32. Vajranābhi (Vajranābha)

37. Bhil named Kuraṅga

41. deity (Lalitaṅga)

67. hell (Saptamavani hell) inhabitant

43. king Ānanda (Suvarṇabāhu)

67. lion

68. deity in Ānata heaven

? (hell inhabitant)

92. Pārśva

117. Śambara (Asura Meghamālin)


Another shortcoming of Śīlaṅka's is also valid for Guṇabhadra, viz volatility in his way of composing. Moreover, a difference between Guṇabhadra and both Bhāvadeva and Hemacandra is the absence of stories and sermons.

A more precise comparison of the various Pārśvanāthacaritras, inter alia by Vādirāja[2] (ca 1025 C.E.), Hemavijaya (ca 1575) and Udayavīra (ca 1597), to mention only those published so far,[3] can only be made with critical editions of the texts and exact translations (as against Hindī paraphrases) and evaluations. The present treatise is an attempt to provide the latter; even if the conditions are not yet fulfilled, a start must be made. Guṇabhadra's hagiography was paraphrased by Bloomfield in 1919, whereas Campbell, who posthumously edited Zimmer's Philosophies of India in 1951, admitted his inability to figure out the text used by Zimmer for his chapter on Pārśva in view of many details that deviate from Bhāvadeva in Bloomfield's version.[4] See also Shah 1987: 170ff.

As to the person of Pārśva, because of his representation in literature and art, supported by an etymology of his name, I think he is a mythical serpent prince behind whom (for unknown reasons) the historical Tīrthakara, who may even be a near or older contemporary of Mahāvīra,[5] is hidden. The reasons for this in my view is his being the son of the nāga king Aśvasena, mentioned in Mahābhārata I 218,5 and 219,40; accordingly Hemacandra, Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra IX 3, 90, calls him Aśvasenī, etc.,[6] and his dark complexion as that of a nāga.[7] As proper names are often abridged, the name Pāsa or Passa may be derived from (U)paśva(sena).[8] As a rule, Pāsa is represented with his two yakṣas Dharaṇendra and Padmāvatī, the latter holding an umbrella over the snake protecting the Jina. This is the umbrella of the dharma expressing the Indian idea that a person who does not attack himself will not be attacked.

The pattern of the protecting serpent (nāga) as in Vinaya Pāli I 3 of the Buddha, sheltered from bad weather by the snake king Mucalinda,[9] was possibly the example for Pārśva.

Guṇabhadra, Uttarapurāṇa 73

1. sa pātu Pārśvanātho 'smān, yan-mahimnâiva bhū-dharaḥ
nyaṣedhi; kevalaṃ bhakti-bhoginī-chatra-dhāraṇam

May Pārśvanāth protect us, by whose mere power the mountain (thrown by Kamaṭha) was averted. The female serpent (Padmāvatī) carrying the umbrella acts only from devotion.[10]

2. dharma-śvetâtapatraṃ te sūte viśva-visarpiṇīm
chāyāṃ pāpâtapa-pluṣṭās tathâpi kila ke-cana

Your white umbrella of the Doctrine provides a shadow over everything / an all covering shadow. Some, however, are indeed burnt by the heat of Evil.[11]

3. sarva-bhāṣāṃ bhavad-bhāṣāṃ satyāṃ sarvôpakāriṇīm
santaḥ śṛṇvanti saṃtuṣṭāḥ, khalās tān ca na jātu cit

Good people are pleased to hear your true speech, all that you say (?)[12] that helps all, but mischievous men are never pleased.

4. an-abhivyakta-māhātmyā, deva, tīrthakarāḥ pare[13]
tvam eva vyakta-māhātmyo; vācyā te sādhu tat-kathā

Of other Tīrthakaras, Lord, the exalted state is not evident, but your exalted state is clear indeed. You should proclaim it well.[14]

5. ku-mārga-vāriṇī yasmād yasmāt san-mārga-dhāriṇī,
tat te dharmyāṃ kathāṃ vakṣye bhavānāṃ mokṣa-gāminām

Therefore I shall relate your sermon leading to the deliverance of (all) beings[15] for it will keep (people) off the wrong way, in order that it will make (them) stick to the right way.[16]

6. Jambū-viśeṣaṇe dvīpe Bharate dakṣiṇe mahān
su-ramyo viṣayas; tatra vistīrṇaṃ Podanaṃ puram

In South Bharata (India) on the isle of the Jambul[17] there is a large, quite pleasant region. There lies the big city of Podana.[18]

7. rakṣitâsyâravindâkhyo vikhyāto Vikramâdibhiḥ
pipriyus taṃ samāśritya Prajāpatim iva prajāḥ

Its protector was called Aravinda by Vikrama and others.[19] His subjects confided in him and loved him as his creatures (love) Prajāpati.

8. tatrâiva Viśvabhūty-ākhyo brāhmaṇaḥ śruti-śāstra-vit.
brāhmaṇy Anundharī[20] tasya prītyai śrutir ivâparā

At that very place there lived a brahmin named Viśvabhūti who knew the Vedas and the manuals. His wife was Anundharī, loved [by him] like another Veda.

9. a-bhūtām etayoḥ putrau viṣâmṛta-kṛtôpamau
Kamaṭho Marubhūtiś ca pāpa-dharmāv ivâparau

They got two sons, one as if made of poison and the other of nectar: Kamaṭha and Marubhūti, images of Evil and the Doctrine.

10. Varuṇā jyāyaso bhāryā dvitīyasya Vasundharī[21]
mantriṇau tau mahīpasya kanīyān nīti-vit tayoḥ

The wife of the older one was Varuṇā, of the second, Vasundharī. Both men were ministers of the king. The younger of the two was a politician.

11. Vasundharī-nimittena sad-ācāraṃ satāṃ matam
Marubhūtiṃ dur-ācāro jaghāna Kamaṭho 'dhamaḥ

Because of Vasundharī the lowly (and) wicked Kamaṭha killed the virtuous Marubhūti[22] who was esteemed by good men.

12. Malaye Kubjakâkhyāne vipule sallakī-vane
Marubhūtir abhūn mṛtvā Vajraghoṣo dvipâdhipaḥ

In a large Boswellia Thurifera forest in the Malaya mountain range, Marubhūti after his death was reborn an elephant king named Vajraghoṣa

13. Varuṇā ca mṛtā tasya Kareṇur abhavat priyā.
tayos tasmin vane prītyā kāle gacchaty a-tucchake

and Varuṇā after her death became his wife Kareṇu in the course of time, which was full of pleasure for them in that forest.

14. Aravinda-mahārājas tyaktvā rājyaṃ virajya saḥ
samprāpya saṃyamaṃ sārthenâmā Sammedam īḍitum[23]

King Aravinda became indifferent and gave up kingship, accomplished self-control at home with the intention to go to Mt. Sammeda.[24]

15. vrajan vane sva-velāyāṃ pratimā-yogam āgamat
nôllaṅghate niyogaṃ svaṃ manāg api manasvinaḥ

Setting out in the forest at a moment of his own choice he observed vows of selfdiscipline;[25] he did not himself in the least violate the order of the wise man.[26]

16. vilokya taṃ mahā-nāgas tri-prasruta[27]-madôddhataḥ
hantum abhyudyatas tasya pratimā-yoga-dhāriṇaḥ

Seeing him the big elephant [Vajraghoṣa] which was intoxicated because in musth, with fluid streaming from three (places in its body) was ready to trample him to death who undertook vows of self-discipline.

17. vīkṣya vakṣaḥ-sthale sâkṣān maṅkṣu śrīvatsa-lāñchanaṃ
sva-pūrva-bhava-sambandhaṃ pratyakṣī-kṛtya cetasā

Quickly noting (however) with its own eyes the śrīvatsa sign on his (the king's) chest, it (the elephant) realized in its mind the connection with its own previous life.

18. tasmin prāktana-sauhārdāt pratoṣī joṣam āsta saḥ.
tiryañco 'pi suhṛd-bhāvaṃ pālayanty eva bandhuṣu

Because of his former affection towards him (Aravinda) it was gratefully pleased. Even animals maintain friendship with (their former/or: attachment to) relatives.[28]

19. dharma-tattvaṃ muneḥ samyag jñātvā tasmāt sa-hetukam
sa proṣadhôpavāsâdi śrāvaka-vratam agrahīt

Understanding very well the real essence of the monk's Dharma/Doctrine (and) motivated thereby, he took the vow of a layman, viz., fasting, abstinence from sensual gratification, etc.

20. tadā prabhṛti nāgendro bhagna-śākhāḥ parair dvipaiḥ
khādaṃs tṛṇāni śuṣkāṇi patrāṇi ca bhayād aghāt

From that time onward the mighty elephant, out of fear (of violating his vow), ate (only) branches broken off by other elephants and grazed (only) dry grass (and) leaves.[29]

21. upalâsphālanâkṣepa-dvipa-saṃghāta-ghaṭṭitam
pibaṃs toyaṃ nirāhāraḥ pāraṇāyāṃ mahā-balaḥ

The very strong one drank (only) water pressed by the bodies of elephants when rubbing and striking against rocks, and abstained from food until the conclusion of a fast.

22. ciram evaṃ tapaḥ kurvan kṣīṇa-deha-parākramaḥ;
kadācit pātum āyāto vegavatyā hrade 'patat
23. paṅke punaḥ samutthātuṃ vihitêho 'py aśaknuvan
Kamaṭhena ku-vṛttena kukkuṭâhitvam īyuṣā
24 pūrva-vairânubandhena daṣṭo nirnaṣṭa-jīvitaḥ
abhūt kalpe Sahasrâre ṣoḍaśâbdhy upamâyuṣā

For a long time it pursued penance in this way and its physical strength diminished. Once when it came to drink, it violently fell in a pool and was unable to rise again from the mud, despite the efforts made. Because of its enmity from a former birth, bitten by the wicked Kamaṭha, who was reborn as a cock with a snake head,[30] its life was extinguished. It was reborn (a god) with a life-span equal to 16 sāgaras[31] in the Sahasrâra heaven.[32]

25. tatra bhogān yathā-yogyaṃ bhuktvā prānte tataś cyutaḥ
dvīpe 'smin prāg Videhe 'sti viṣayaḥ Puṣkalāvatī

There he enjoyed his life as befitted him and at its end was reborn from there on this island (of Jambūdvīpa) in East Videha. (There) is the district of Puṣkalāvatī.

26. tat Khecarâcale rājā Tri-lokôttama[na]-nāmani
pure Vidyud-gatir[33] vidyādharêśas tasya vallabhā
27. Vidyun-mālā. tayoḥ sūnū Raśmi-vegâkhyayā jani.
sampūrṇa-yauvano dhīmān. pratyāsanna-bhavâvadhiḥ
28. samādhi-guptam āsādhya muniṃ samprāpya saṃyamam

On a rock of the Khecaras in a city of the name Trilokôttama[34] there lived at that time (tat) the king Vidyudgati. The wife of this lord of the vidyādharas was Vidyunmālā.[35] Of them a son with the name Raśmivega[36] was born. When adult he was a wise man.

When his life was near its end the king sat down near a muni who had retired into meditation and when he had reached self-control he undertook strict fasting, the beginning of which was in every way auspicious.

29. paredyur Hima-giry-adri-guhāyāṃ yogam ādadhat

The next morning in a mountain cave in the Himâlaya he encountered the wicked cock with a snake head, which had come to suffer in the Dhūmaprabhā[37] hell.

30. tataś cyutena bhūtvâjagareṇâlokya kopinā
nigīrṇo 'cyuta-kalpasthe vimāne puṣkare 'bhavat

When seen by an angry boa constrictor, his (the serpent's head cock's) rebirth, the (king) was swallowed and reborn (as a deity) in a vimāna (heavenly chariot) in the Puṣkara region[38] in the Acyuta-kalpa heaven[39]

31. dvāviṃśaty abdhi-mānâyus. tad-ante puṇya-sārathiḥ
dvīpe 'pare Videhe 'smin viṣaye padma-saṃjñake

with a life-span the length of 22 sāgaras. At the end thereof he became a leader of the virtuous people in West Videha, in the region named Padma,

32. mahîśo 'śva-purâdhīśo Vajra-vīryasya bhū-pateḥ
Vijayāyāś ca tad-devyā Vajra-nābhiḥ suto 'bhavat

as a big landowner, ruler of Aśvapura. Vajranābhi was the son of king Vajravīrya and his queen Vijayā.

33. sa cakra-lakṣitāṃ lakṣmīm a-kṣuṇṇāṃ puṇya-rakṣitaḥ
bhuktvâpy a-tṛpnuvan bhoktuṃ mokṣa-lakṣmīṃ samudyataḥ

Though, protected by merit, he enjoyed permanent happiness characterized by a province from sea to sea,[40] he was insatiable and eager to enjoy the bliss of deliverance.

34. Kṣemaṃ-karâkhya-bhaṭṭārakasya vaktrâbja-nirgatam
dharmâmṛta-rasaṃ pītvā tyaktâ-śeṣa-rasa-spṛhaḥ

He drank the nectar fluid of the Doctrine, which had left the mouth-lotus of the bhaṭṭāraka[41] named Kṣemaṅkara, and longed for the whole essence that was missing still.

35. sutaṃ sva-rājye su-sthāpya rājabhir bahubhiḥ samam
saṃyamaṃ samagāt samyak-sarva-sattvânukampanam

He firmly installed his son in his kingship and together with many (other) kings attained self-control (and) full compassion for all living beings.

36. prāktano 'jagaraḥ ṣaṣṭa-narake tanum āśritaḥ

The former boa constrictor stayed very distressed in the sixth hell with a life-span of 22 (sāgaras).

37. cirāt tasmād vinirgatya Kuraṅgâkhyo vane-caraḥ kampayan vana-sambhūtān
sambhūtaḥ sarva-dehinaḥ

After a long time he was reborn from the (sixth hell) as a forest-dweller[42] called Kuraṅga and frightened all beings living in the forest.

38. vivarjitârta-dhyānasya vidhṛtâtapana-sthiteḥ
tasya tyakta-śarīrasya śarīra-bala-śālinaḥ

39. tapo-dhanasya cakrêśo ghoraṃ kātara-dussaham
upasargaṃ sphura-dvairaḥ sa pāpī bahudhā vyadhāt

The wicked one, trembling with hostility (from a former life), often caused horrible trouble, unbearable for the disheartened, to the sovereign (Vajranābhi),[43] (now) a great ascetic, who had stopped painful meditation and the custom of causing affliction. He had given up his body (though still) amply in possession of physical strength.

40. dharma-dhyānaṃ praviśyâsau samārādhya surôttamaḥ
samutpannaḥ Subhadrâkhye sudṛṅ-madhyama-madhyame
41. saptaviṃśati−vār-rāśi[44]−meyâyuṃ divya-bhoga-bhāk.
tataś cyuto 'smin dvīpe 'sau Jambū-bhūruha-bhūṣite

Having entered into pious meditation (the ascetic died and was) reborn, conciliated, as a prominent deity[45] in the womb of a woman with a handsome waist[46] named Subhadrā with a life-span of 27 sāgaras, enjoying heavenly happiness. Reborn from there he was born on this island, which is decorated with the Jambul (i.e. Jambūdvīpa)

42. Kauśale viṣaye 'yodhyā-nagare Kāśyapânvaye
Ikṣvāku-vaṃśa-jātasya Vajra-bāhu-mahī-bhṛtaḥ

in a region belonging to the Kośalas in the city of Ayodhyā in the Kāśyapa family of king Vajrabāhu, who was born in the Ikṣvāku dynasty.

43. suto devyāṃ Prabhaṃkaryām Ānandâkhyo 'jani priyaḥ
sa samprāpta-mahā-māṇḍalika-sthāno mahôdayaḥ

He was born as the beloved son of the queen Prabhaṃkarī,[47] named Ānanda (and) very fortunate to have obtained the position of a powerful governor of a province.

44. svasya Svāmi-hitâkhyasya mahato mantriṇo 'nyadā
vācā vasanta-māsasya Nandîśvara-dinâṣṭake
45. pūjā nirvartayan draṣṭu-kāmas[48] tatra samāgataṃ
vipulâdi-matiṃ dṛṣṭvā gaṇêśaṃ praśrayâśrayaḥ

Once, at the suggestion of his eminent vizier called Svāmihita, performing pūjā on the eight days of Nandîśvara[49] in the spring month (and) seeing a very learned, etc., [50] leader of a troop (of monks) who had arrived there with the wish to witness (his pūjā), he became the seat of/full of veneration.

46. abhivandhya samākarṇya sad-dharmaṃ sarva-śarma-dam
"bhagavan, kiṃcid icchāmi śrotuṃ me saṃśayâspadam.

He saluted (him), listened to the good Doctrine (of the Jina) that confers happiness on all (and said:) "Sir, I would like to hear some authoritative (words) against my uncertainty.

47. a-cetane kathaṃ pūjā nigrahânugraha-cyute
Jina-bimbe kṛtā bhaktimatāṃ puṇyaṃ phalaty asau?"

How should an inanimate Jina image, which can neither bestow a favour nor punish one, be meritorious for devotees when worshipped?"

48. ity a-pṛcchad asau câha: "sa-hetv" iti; vacas tadā
śṛṇu, rājan, Jinêndrasya: caitya caityâlayâdi ca

Thus (the king) asked and (the monk) replied: "(That) has a reason. Then, O king, listen to the word of the Jina: an assembly hall and a temple complex,[51] etc.,"

49. bhavaty a-cetanaṃ, kiṃ tu bhavyānāṃ puṇya-bandhane
pariṇāma-samutpatti-hetutvāt kāraṇaṃ bhavet

are inanimate, but it may be effective in the building up of merit because the good things in the future are based on the production and ripening (of merit). [52]

50. rāgâdi-doṣa-hīnatvād āyudhâbharaṇâdikāt
vimukhasya prasannêndu-kānti-hāsi-mukha-śriyaḥ
51. a-vartitâkṣa-sūtrasya lokâlokâvalokinaḥ
kṛtârthatvāt parityakta-jaṭâdeḥ paramâtmanaḥ
52. jinêndrasyâlayāṃs tasya pratimāś ca prapaśyatām
bhavec chubhâbhisaṃdhāna-prakarṣo nânyatas tathā

One must look at temples and contemplate[53] statues of this Jinendra, who dislikes arms as ornaments, etc., because he lacks faults such as passion and the like, and who has the aura of the laughing face of the wife of the bright moon.[54] Without turning a rosary[55] he looks through the worlds,[56] because he is content, has done away with his hair locks[57] and has an excellent soul. Therefore is his fitting speech so eminent, not for another reason.

53. kāraṇa-dvaya-sāṃnidhyāt sarva-kārya-samudbhavaḥ.
tasmāt tat sādhu vijñeyaṃ puṇya-kāraṇa-kāraṇam

The origin of what is proper is founded on these two causes.[58] It is therefore good to know these causes that produce/the primary cause of merit.[59]

54. tat-kathâvasare loka-traya-caityâlayâkṛtīḥ
samyag varṇayituṃ vāñchan prāg āditya-vimāna-je
55. jinêndra-bhavane bhūtāṃ vibhūtiṃ so 'nvavarṇayat
tām a-sādhāraṇīṃ śrutvânandaḥ śraddhāṃ parāṃ vahan

Since (the leading monk) at the right moment in his account thereof wanted truly to praise the appearance of the temple complexes in (or: representing the) three worlds, he mentioned the splendour inherent in the palace of Jinendra which originated from the vimāna of the sun.[60] Hearing of this extraordinary (splendour) Ānanda felt highest belief.

56. dinâdau ca dinânte ca karābhyāṃ kṛta-kuḍmalaḥ
stuvann ānamra-mukuṭo jinêśān maṇḍale raveḥ

57. śilpibhiḥ kārayitvârka-vimānaṃ maṇi-kāñcanaiḥ
kroḍī-kṛta-jinâdhīśa-bhavanaṃ vitata-dyuti

Morning and evening, with hands held into a bud and with bent head, he praised the lords Jinas in the sun's disk and had a vimāna of the sun made by artisans: a palace of the lord Jina set in gold and jewels (and) with far-reaching lustre.[61]

58. śāstrôkta-vidhinā bhaktyā pūjām āṣṭâhnikīṃ vyadhāt.
catur-mukhaṃ Rathâvartaṃ sarvato bhadram ūrjitam

With devotion[62] in the way expressed in the śāstras, he performed an eight day pūjā.[63] Rathāvarta[64] has four points of access (and is) quite good and important,

59. kalpa-vṛkṣaṃ ca dīnebhyo dadad dānam a-vāritam
tad-vilokya janāḥ sarve tat-prāmāṇyāt svayaṃ ca tat
60. stotum ārebhire bhaktyā maṇḍalaṃ caṇḍa-rociṣaḥ
tadā-prabhṛti loke 'smin babhūvârkô-pasevanam

(and there is) a wishing tree that gives any presents to the distressed. All the people who saw that, of their own accord began piously to praise the sun's disk because of its evidence. From that time on the sun has been worshipped in this world.

61. athânyadā kilânando[65] mahîṭ śirasi buddhavān
palitaṃ dalayad yauvanârthināṃ hṛdayaṃ dvidhā

Then the wise king Ānanda one day tore a grey hair on his head in two[66] − a critical phenomenon for those who strive after youthfulness.

62. tan-nimitta-samudbhūta-nirvego jyeṣṭha-sūnave
sâbhiṣekaṃ nijaṃ rājyaṃ datvâdattâ-spṛhaṃ tapaḥ
63. yateḥ Samudraguptasya samīpe bahubhiḥ samaṃ
rājabhī rājasaṃ bhāvaṃ parityajya su-leśyayā

Feeling calm because of that, he gave his kingdom with a consecration rite to his eldest son and started practising penance without desires with the yati Samudragupta, together with many other princes, giving up passion with a good soul colour (leśyā).[67]

64. sârādhanā-catuṣkaḥ san-viśuddhyâikādaśâṅga-dhṛt
pratyayāṃs tīrtha-kṛn-nāmno bhāvayām āsa ṣoḍaśa
65. yathôktaṃ bhāvayitvâitān nāma baddhvântimaṃ śubham
ciraṃ ghoraṃ tapaḥ kṛtvā prānte śāntântar-ātmakaḥ

With fourfold propitiatory declarations (?),[68] by his actual virtue in possession of the eleven Aṅgas, he meditated on the sixteen causes leading to tīrthakṛt-ship[69] and, having meditated on them separately as stated,[70] attained final bliss. He practised horrible penance for a long time and at the end reached inner peace.

66. prāyôpagamanaṃ[71] prāpya pratimā-yogam āsthitaḥ
dhīraḥ Kṣīra-vane dharma-dhyānād hīno nirākulaḥ

Observing vows of self-castigation[72] he fasted unto death as a wise man in the forest on Mt. Kṣīra,[73] without falling from pious meditation,[74] calm.

67. Kamaṭhaḥ prāktanaḥ pāpī pracyuto naraka-kṣiteḥ
kaṇṭhīravatvam āsādya tan-muneḥ kaṇṭham agrahīt

Kamaṭha, wicked in a former state of existence, was reborn from his infernal stay, became a lion and seized that muni by his neck.

68. soḍha-siṃhôpasargo 'sau catur-ārādhanā-dhanaḥ
vyasur ānata-kalpêśo vimāne prāṇate 'bhavat

Bearing the lion's attack, and with his wealth of the four propitiatory declarations, the (muni) died and was reborn a lord of the Ānata heaven in a central vimāna.[75]

69. tatra viṃśati-vārāśi-vihitôpama-jīvitaḥ
sârdhâratni-trayônmeya-śarīraḥ śukla-leśyayā

There he lived for twenty sāgaropamas[76] with a height[77] of three and a half cubits and a white soul colour.[78]

70. daśa-māsânta-niśvāsī manasā 'mṛtam āharan
kha-catuṣka-dvi-varṣânte manasā strī-pracāravān

Breathing at the end of ten months[79] he ate amṛta in his thoughts; at the end of twentythousand (lit.: two with four zeros)[80] years he occupied himself in his thoughts with women (?).

71. ā-pañcama-kṣiti-vyāpta-tṛtīyâvagamêkṣaṇaḥ

Because of his avadhi-jñāna[81] his transcendental perception reached to the extreme limit of the world (and) he was able to change his appearance and physical strength according to the extent of his cognition.

72. sāmānikâdi-sarvarddhi-sudhâśana-samarcitaḥ
73. viśvān vaiṣayikān bhogān śaśvat samprāpya nirviśan
tal-loko līlayā kālam alāvīt kalayan kalām

Honoured with an abundance of food and drink fitting his peers, etc., receiving plenty of nectar made by many goddesses who granted the desirable objects he longed for, he had all kinds of sensual pleasures and always enjoyed them. Being in this world and betaking himself to a practical art he killed time with play.

74. ṣaṇ-māsair antimais tasminn āgamiṣyaty amūṃ mahīṃ
dvīpe 'smin Bharate Kāśī-viṣaye nagare 'dhipaḥ

When in the next six months he will come to that (well-known) earth on this (Jambu) continent (there will be) a king[82] in Bharat (India) in the city of the district of Kāśī.

75. Vārāṇasyām abhūd Viśvasenaḥ Kāśyapa-gotrajaḥ.
Brāhmy asya devī̆ samprāpta-Vasudhārâdi-pūjanā

In Benares he became Viśvasena,[83] born in the Kāśyapa clan. Brāhmī was his queen by the worship of Vasudhārā[84] and others.

76. vaiśākha-kṛṣṇa-pakṣasya dvitīyāyāṃ niśâtyaye
viśākharkṣe śubha-svapnān nirīkṣya tad-an-antaram

At the end of the night[85] of the second day[86] of the dark half of Viśākha, she then saw auspicious dreams near a forked tree.[87]

77. sva-vaktrâbja-praviṣṭôru-gaja-rūpa-vilokinī

She saw the shape of an elephant whose member (lit.: shank) had entered the lotus of her mouth. She fully opened her eyes at the sound of the morning drum.[88]

78. maṅgalâbhiṣavâviṣṭa-tuṣṭiḥ puṇya-prasādhanā
vibhāvarîva saj-jyotsnā rājānaṃ samupetya sā
79. kṛtôpacārā saṃviśya viṣṭarârdhe mahīpateḥ
sva-dṛṣṭa-sakala-svapnān yathâkramam abhāṣata,

Content after making an auspicious ablution and performing meritorious acts, she went to the king, waited upon by her attendants, bright like a moonlit night, sat down on the (other) half of the king's throne, and recounted all her dreams as seen in succession.[89]

80. śrutvā tān sâvadhiḥ so 'pi phalāny evaṃ nyavedayat:
gajêndra-vīkṣaṇât putro, vṛṣabhâ-lokanāt patiḥ
81. tri-viṣṭapasya, siṃhena dṛṣṭenânanta-vīryakaḥ,
Mandarâbhiṣava-prāptiḥ padmâbhiṣava-darśanāt

(The king) listened to them attentively and foretold the following outcome:[90] "From seeing a king among elephants a son (will be born); because of seeing a bull he will be a ruler of heaven; from the lion you saw he will be of a strength without limits; from the sight of (the goddess Śrī) sprinkling lotuses[91] he will perform a libation on Mt. Mandara (Meru);[92]

82. dāma-dvayâvalokena dharma-dvitaya-tīrthakṛt
śaśâṅka-maṇḍalâlokāt trailokya-kumuda-priyaḥ

From the pair of wreaths[93] he will be a tīrthakṛt of the twofold Doctrine;[94] from your seeing the lunar circle[95] he will be dear as lotus to the three worlds.[96]

83. tejasvī bhāsvato matsya-yugalena sukhâvilaḥ
nidhīnām adhipaḥ kumbha-vīkṣaṇāt sarva-lakṣaṇaḥ

From (your seeing) the sun he will be energetic; through the pair of fish he will be not devoid of happiness[97]; as (you dreamt) of pots[98] he will be a lord (> owner) of treasures and possess all auspicious body marks.

84. sarasaḥ sāgarāt sarva-jñātā, siṃhâsanêkṣaṇāt
sarva-lokâika-sammānyaḥ, svargād adyâvatīrṇavān
85. avatārād vimānasya, bhavanāt pavanâśinaḥ
tri-bodha-dīdhitī, ratna-rāśinâliṅgito guṇaiḥ

Because you saw an ocean, he will be omniscient; because of the sight of a lion's throne he will be highly honoured by the whole world; from the appearance of a vimāna he will now descend from heaven; from the palace of a snake[99] (in your dream) he will shine with three (kinds of) knowledge[100] and by (the sight of) the heap of jewels he will be provided with good qualities.

86. vidhūma-dhūmaketûpalakṣaṇād dāhako 'mhasām
vaktrâmbhoje gajendrasya praveśāt te, kṛśodari

From (your vision of) a fire without smoke he will be a destroyer of troubles; through the entering of a royal elephant (gajêndra)[101] into your mouth (in the dream), slimwaisted one."[102]

87. "avasthitiṃ sa samprāpad udare'mara-pūjitaḥ"
iti śrutvâtuṣad vāṇīṃ patyur eṇī-vilocanā

When she heard that "(a son) has reached his proper position in her womb" and was worshipped by the gods, the deer-eyed (queen) was pleased[103] with her husband's words.

88. tadâkhilâmarâdhīśā samāgatya vyadhur mudā
svargâvataraṇe pitroḥ[104] kalyāṇâbhiṣavôtsavam

Then all lords of the immortals came together and, delighted at the descent from heaven, celebrated the parents' ablution festival of the auspicious event (of the conception).[105]

89. svarga-lokaṃ ca tad-geham atiśete sma sampadā.
kiṃ karoti na kalyāṇaṃ kṛta-puṇya-samāgamaḥ

(The newly born) surpasses heaven and their (i.e., his parents') house in glory, the good thing a collection of merit made can do!

90. navame māsi sampūrṇe Pauṣe māsy asite sutaḥ
pakṣe yoge 'nile prādur āsīd ekādaśī tithau

After a full nine months in the dark half of the month Pauṣa (Dec.-Jan.), when there was a proper wind (i.e., weather?),[106] a son was born on the 11th day.

91. tadā nijâsanâkampād jñātvā tīrthakarôdayam
Saudharma-pramukhāḥ sarve Mandarâcala-mastake

Then, because of the trembling of their own seat, all chiefs of the gods in the Saudharma heaven[107] on top of Mt. Mandara (Meru) knew of the birth of a Tīrthakara.

92. janmâbhiṣeka-kalyāṇa-pūjā-nirvṛtty-anantaram
Pārśvâbhidhāna kṛtvâsya pitṛbhyāṃ[108] taṃ samarpayan
93. Nemy-antare kha-pañca-svarâgny-aṣṭa-mita-vatsare
prānte hantā kṛtântasya tad-abhyantara-jīvitaḥ
94. Pārśvanāthaḥ samutpannaḥ śata-saṃvatsarâyuṣā
bāla-śāli-tanu-cchāyaḥ sarva-lakṣaṇa-lakṣitaḥ
95. navâratni-tanûtsedho Lakṣmīvān ugra-vaṃśa-jaḥ
ṣoḍaśâbdâvasāne 'yaṃ kadācin nava-yauvanaḥ

Directly after finishing the worship at the great event of the birth and the ablution (of the child), his parents[109] gave him the name Pārśva[110] to make him known, at the end of the year numbered 83,750 after Nemi(nātha),[111] the conqueror of death, Pārśvanātha, whose life followed this interval, was born with a life-span of a century, with a body complexion of a young rice plant[112] and provided with all auspicious marks,[113] nine cubits tall, prosperous (and) born in a high-born family,[114] after 16 years he was more or less adolescent.

96. krīḍârthaṃ sva-balenâmā niryāyâyād bahiḥ puram.
āśramâdi-vane mātur Mahī-pāla-purâdhipam
97. pitaraṃ taṃ Mahī-pāla-nāmānam amarârcitaḥ[115]
mahā-devī-viyogena duḥkhāt tāpasa-dīkṣitam
98. tapaḥ kurvantam ālokya pañca-pāvaka-madhyagam
tat-samīpe kumāro 'sthād a-natvâinam an-ādaraṃ[116]

For sporting entertainment together with his military he, honoured by the immortals, went outside town. (There,) in a wood with pleasure gardens, etc., he, honoured by the immortals, saw his mother's father named Mahīpāla,[117] the king of Mahīpālapura, who, from unhappiness about the separation from his chief queen[118] ordained as an ascetic, performed penance amidst five fires. The prince stayed with him without bowing to him, who was (thus) not honoured.[119]

99. a-vicārya tad-āviṣṭaḥ kopena ku-munir "guruḥ
kulīno 'haṃ tapo-vṛddhaḥ pitā mātur namaskriyām
100. a-kṛtvā me kumāro 'jñaḥ sthitavān mada-vihvalaḥ"
iti prakṣobham āgatya praśānte pāvake punaḥ
101. nikṣeptuṃ svayam evôccair utkṣipya paraśuṃ ghanam
bhindann indhanam "A-jño 'sau;" "mā bhaitsīr, atra vidyate
102. prāṇî" ti vāryamāṇo 'pi kumāreṇâvadhi-tviṣā
anvatiṣṭhad ayaṃ karma tasyâbhyantara-vartinau

At his (the prince's) approach the wicked muni, without reflection, spoke angrily agitated: "I am an important person of high descent, rich in penance, his mother's father. Without salutation the prince, because he does not recognize me, stays (here) affected by pride," but when his fire was dying he himself raised high an axe and split a thick log of fire wood[120] in order to put it on (the fire). Despite, through his illuminating clairvoyance that "he does not know," being stopped by the prince with the words: "Don't split it; there is a living being in it," he carried out his act.

103. nāgī nāgaś ca tac-chedād dvidhā khaṇḍam upāgatau.
tan-nirīkṣya Subhaumâkhya-kumāraḥ samabhāṣata:
104. "'ahaṃ gurus tapasvî' ti garvaṃ durvaham udvahan
pāpâsravo bhavaty asmān na vê(?)"ty "etac ca vetsi na

By his act of cleaving it (the log), the two male and female snakes sitting in it[121] were cut (lit.: got) in two. Seeing this a young man, Subhauma by name, said: "With these words: 'I am an important ascetic'[122] he shows unbearable arrogance and for this reason is of an evil influence, or not?" "But you do not know that.[123]

105. a-jñāna-tapasânena duḥkhaṃ te 'tra paratra ca"
iti tad-vacanāt kopī munir itthaṃ tam abravīt:

By this ignorant penance you will have trouble here and in the hereafter." Because of these words (of the young man) the muni became angry and spoke to him thus:

106. "ahaṃ prabhur; mamâyaṃ kiṃ vā karotî? ty avajñayā
tapaso mama māhātmyas a-buddhvâivaṃ bravīṣi kim?"

"I am powerful; what can this (fellow) do to me? Why do you thus indifferently speak, though you do not know the peculiar efficacy of my penance?"

107. "pañcâgni-madhya-vartitvaṃ pavanâhāra-jīvanam
ūrdhva-bāhutayā pādenâikenâiva ciraṃ sthitiḥ

"Just sitting amid five fires,[124] living with air for food, with raised arms, standing long on one foot only,

108. svayam patita-parṇâder upavāsena pāraṇam
ity-ādi-kāya-saṃtāpi-tāpasānāṃ su-durdharam

breaking one's fast with a diet of fallen leaves − a penance difficult to bear for ascetics who torment their body with penances like these

109. tapo nâdhikam asty asmād" iti tad-vacana-śruteḥ
Subhaumaḥ sa-smito 'vādīn: "na bhavantam aha gurum
110. avamanye, punaḥ kiṃ tu saṃtyajyâptâgamâdikam (?)
mithyatvâdi-catuṣkeṇa pṛthivy-ādiṣu ṣaṭsv api

is not superior to this one (of mine)." When hearing these words Subhauma laughed and spoke: "I do not blame you as a serious ascetic, but giving up the true tradition, etc., by the tetrad of erroneous belief, etc.,[125] regarding the hexad of the earth, etc.,[126]

111. vācā kāyena manasā kṛtakâdi-trikeṇa ca
vadhe pravartamānānām an-āpta-mata-saṃśrayāt

by the triad of things done, etc.,[127] in word, in deed and in thought, in consequence of the unsuitable thoughts of those intent on killing;

112. nirvāṇa-prārthanaṃ teṣāṃ taṇḍulâvāpti-vāñchayā
tuṣa-kaṇḍana-khedo vā ghṛtêcchā vâmbu-manthanāt

their search for nirvāṇa by the wish to obtain rice, or the trouble to separate chaff, or the wish for ghee after churning water;

113. hemôpalabdhi-buddhir vā dāhād andhâśma-saṃhateḥ
andhasyêvâgni-sampāto dāva-bhītyā pradhāvataḥ

or the idea of obtaining gold after heating a heap of black stones;[128] the appearance of fire, even for a blind man, when he runs away out of fear of a forest fire –

114. jñāna-hīna-parikleśo bhāvi-duḥkhasya kāraṇam"
iti prarūpyate yuṣmat-snehena mahatā mayā"

hardship (of penance) without knowledge is the cause of future trouble." Thus I explain it out of great affection for you.

115. ity etad uktaṃ jñātvâpi pūrva-vairânubandhanāt
nija-pakṣânurāgitvād duḥsaṃsārād ihâgateḥ
116. prakṛtyâivâtiduṣṭatvād an-ādāya viruddha-dhīḥ[129]
"Subhaumako bhavān atra sa-smayo 'yaṃ kumārakaḥ
117. parābhavati mām evam" iti tasmin prakopavān
sa-śalyo mṛtim āsādya Śambaro jyotiṣâmaraḥ
118. nāmnâbhavat. sa-kopānāṃ tapasâpîdṛśī gatiḥ.

Even after learning these words (of Subhaumaka), bound by prenatal enmity, he stayed in his own group because of his appearance in this world due to the bad saṃsāra. Because of his extreme natural malignancy an armed god named Śambara,[130] afflicted, did not accept any contrary opinion and, expressing his anger at him with the words: "this youngster Subhaumaka present here thus overcomes me with a smile" caused (Subhaumaka's) death with a flash of lightning.[131] Such is the state of rebirth of angry people despite penance.

nāgī nāgaś ca samprāpta-śama-bhāvau kumārataḥ
119. babhūvatur ahîndraś ca tat-patnī ca pṛthu-śriyau.
tatas triṃśat-samāmāna-kumāra-samaye gate
120. Sāketa-nagarâdhîśo Jayaseno mahī-patiḥ.
121. anyadâsau nisṛṣṭârthaṃ prāhinot Pārśva-saṃnidhim
gṛhītvôpāyanaṃ pūjayitvā dūtôttamaṃ mudā

Due to the prince, the two snakes were reborn with a quiet nature as a snake king and his wife, both highly prosperous. Then, when the life-time, measured thirty years, of the Prince had elapsed he (was reborn as) the ruler of the city of Sāketa,[132] king Jayasena.[133] Once he sent an envoy to Pārśva with presents such as horses originating from the *Bhagalī* country.[134] After gladly honouring the excellent messenger with a gift

122. Sāketasya vibhūtiṃ taṃ kumāraḥ paripṛṣṭavān.
so 'pi bhaṭṭārakaṃ pūrvaṃ varṇayitvā puruṃ puram

the prince enquired of him about the power of Sāketa. He (the envoy), for his part, first depicted the mighty town as venerable,

123. paścād vyāvarṇayamāsa, prājñā hi krama-vedinaḥ
śrutvā tat tatra kiṃ jātas tīrthakṛn nāma bandhanāt

later he explained (?)[135]: will a person of slow understanding, after learning that a proper tīrthakṛt has been born there, comprehend it because of the binding (of karma) (?)?

124. eṣa eva punar[136] muktim āpad ity upayogavān
sākṣāt kṛta-nijâtīta-sarva-prabhava-saṃtatiḥ

However, when one believes that just he has obtained deliverance, there is obviously a series of causes of all kinds (thereof) made in one's own past.

125. vijṛmbhita-mati-jñāna-kṣayôpaśama-vaibhavāt
labdha-bodhiḥ punar laukāntika-deva-prabodhitaḥ

Laukântikadevas,[137] however, become aware of perfect wisdom obtained by stopping the loss of understanding to a large extent through their greater intelligence.[138]

126. tat-kṣaṇâgata-devêndra-pramukhâmara-nirmita

There is a great festival of the ablution, etc., on the well-known middle one of the festive days[139] (i. e. the Jina's dīkṣā) performed by the the gods, headed by their king, arriving on the same moment.

127. pratyaya[140]-yuktimad-vāgbhiḥ kṛta-bandhu-visarjanaḥ
āruhya śibikāṃ rūḍhāṃ vimalâbhidhayā vibhuḥ

Giving up his friends with words in accordance with his faith the great one with the impeccable name ascended a high palanquin and

128. vidhāyâṣṭamam āhāra-tyāgam Aśva-vane mahā-
śilātale mahā-sattvaḥ palyaṅkâsanam āsthitaḥ

after fasting on a large slab of rock in the Aśvavana[141] for eight meals, the great being on the seat of his palanquin

129. uttarâbhimukhaḥ Pauṣe māse pakṣe sitêtare
ekādaśyāṃ su-pūrvâhṇe samaṃ triśata-bhūbhujaiḥ

turned to the north with three hundred princes[142] in the dark half of the month Pauṣa (Dec.-Jan.) very early on the eleventh day,

130. kṛta-siddha-namaskāro dīkṣā-lakṣmīṃ samādade
dūtikāṃ mukti-kanyāyā mânyāṃ kṛtya-prasādhikām

performed a namaskāra to the Siddhas and received the Lakṣmī of his ordination, the procuress of the girl Deliverance,[143] lest (he should receive) another attendant (of / from the goddess Lakṣmī) for the purpose.

131. keśān vimocitāṃs tasya muṣṭibhiḥ pañcabhiḥ surêṭ
samabhyarcyâdarān nītvā nyakṣipat kṣīra-vāridhau

The king of the gods tore out his hair in five handfuls,[144] worshipped them, brought them away carefully and threw them into the Milk Ocean.

132. ātta-sāmāyikaḥ śuddhyā caturtha-jñāna-bhāsvaraḥ
gulma-kheṭa-puraṃ kāya-sthity-arthaṃ samupeyivān

Having become equanimous by his holiness and provided with the luminousness of the fourth knowledge[145] he understood that the notion of a firm body is (in fact) that of a receptacle of gobbets of phlegm (i.e. something worthless).[146]

133. tatra Dhanyâkhya-bhūpālaḥ śyāma-varṇo 'ṣṭa-maṅgalaiḥ
pratigṛhyâśanaṃ śuddhaṃ datvâpat tat-kriyôcitam

There the dark-coloured[147] king named Dhanya with the eight auspicious signs,[148] obtained a proper (reward) for this act, after giving (him) pleasant, pure food.[149]

134. nayan sa caturo māsān chādmasthyena viśuddhi-bhāk
dīkṣā-graha-vane deva-dāru−bhūri−mahī-ruhaḥ
135. adhastād aṣṭamâhāra-tyāgād ātta-viśuddhikaḥ
pratyāsanna−bhava-prānto yogaṃ sapta-dinâvadhim
136. gṛhītvā sattva-sāro 'sthād dharma-dhyānaṃ pravartayan.
Śambaro 'trâmbare gacchann agacchat svaṃ vimānakam

In the forest where he had taken his ordination spending four months under a mighty deodar (cedar) tree, with ascetic practice after obtaining purity through a fast of eight meals,[150] (he was) endowed with holiness (?[151] and), when the end of his life was near, the best of living beings undertook yoga[152] for seven days and remained meditating on the Doctrine. At this moment (the demon) Śambara[153] (Kamaṭha) went to his celestial vehicle in order to proceed into the air.

137. lokamāno vibhaṅgena spaṣṭa-prāg-vaira-bandhanaḥ
roṣāt kṛta-mahā-ghoṣo mahā-vṛṣṭim apātayat

When he saw (the Lord), his recognition of him touched off the recollection of his former enmity, and angrily making a loud noise he poured a mighty rain (on him).

138. vyadhāt tadâiva saptâhāny anyāṃś ca vividhān vidhiḥ
mahôpasargān śailôpanipātântān ivântakaḥ

Then for seven days he also did various other acts: viz created serious natural phenomena, ending with a sudden attack with rocks, just as Yama (creates) serious diseases.[154]

139. taṃ jñātvâvadhi-bodhena Dharaṇîśo[155] vinirgataḥ
dharaṇyāḥ prasphurad-ratna-phaḥā-maṇḍapa-maṇḍitaḥ

Knowing this by means of his supersensual knowledge, king Dharaṇa arose from the ground with a decorative, sparkling canopy of jewel-crested hoods.[156]

140. bhadantam[157] asthād āvṛtya tat patnī ca phaṇâtateḥ
upary uccaiḥ samuddhatya sthitā vajrâtapacchidam

There he kept covering the venerable (Pārśva) by the darkness of his hoods, and his wife (Padmāvatī) was towering high over him[158] in a way that destroyed the heat of (Śambara's / Kamaṭha's)[159] lightning strikes.

141. amū krūrau prakṛtyâiva nāgau sasmaratuḥ kṛtam;
nôpakāraṃ pare tasmād vismaranty ārdra-cetasaḥ

Both those Nāgas, ferocious by their very nature, remembered what was done (to them); therefore others (than these) who are not ferocious (lit.: friendly-minded) do not forget the help rendered (to them).

142. tato bhagavato dhyāna-māhātmyān moha-saṃkṣaye
vināśam agamad viśvo vikāraḥ Kamaṭha-dviṣaḥ

When his illusion was destroyed by the power of the Lord's meditation, then the whole hostility of Kamaṭha's hatred came to an end.

143. dvitīya-śukla-dhyānena munir nirjitya karmaṇām
tritayaṃ Caitra-māsasya kāle pakṣe dinâdime[160]
144. bhāge viśākha-nakṣatre caturdaśyāṃ mahôdayaḥ
samprāpat kevala-jñānaṃ lokâlokâva-bhāsanam

After neutralizing (lit. besieging) the triad of the karmas[161] by the second pure trance,[162] at the first part of the day in the black half of the month Caitra (March-April), on the 14th in the constellation Viśākha, the muni, the very fortunate (Pārśva) reached omniscience, which illuminates the world and the non-world.

145. tadā kevala-pūjāṃ ca surêndrā niravartayan.
Śambaro 'py ātta-kālâdi-labdhiḥ śamam upāgamat

Then the kings of the gods worshipped (him who had reached) omniscience.[163] Śambara, for his part, desisted at his first opportunity.

146. prāpat samyaktva-śuddhiṃ ca dṛṣṭvā tad vana-vāsinaḥ
tāpasās tyakta-mithyātvāḥ śatānāṃ sapta saṃyamam
147. gṛhītvā śuddha-samyaktvāḥ Pārśvanāthaṃ kṛtâdarāḥ
sarve pradakṣiṇī-kṛtya prāṇemuḥ pādayor dvayoḥ

(Pārśva) obtained the certainty (or: truth) of the Jain faith and when seven hundred acsetics living in a forest saw that, they gave up their false views, controlled themselves, came to the true Jain faith, and all worshipped Pārśvanāth by circumambulating (him) and making obeisance to his pair of feet.[164]

148. kva tad-vairaṃ vṛthā? śāntir īdṛśī kvâsya pāpinaḥ?
sakhyam āstāṃ virodhaś ca vṛddhaye hi mahātmabhiḥ

How could his (Kaṭha's = Meghamālin's) enmity stop (lit.: become idle), how could there be such bliss for this evil one? Indeed, with great souls both affection and hostility used to serve happiness.[165]

149. Gaṇêśā daśa tasyâsan vidhāyâdiṃ Svayambhuvam
sârdhāni tri-śatāny uktā munîndrāḥ pūrva-dhāriṇaḥ

He had ten leaders of a troop, making Svayambhū the first one. There are said to be three hundred fifty principal monks[166] who had memorized the Pūrvas.[167]

150. yatayo 'yuta-pūrvāṇi śatāni nava śikṣakāḥ
catuḥśattôttaraṃ proktāḥ sahasram avadhi-tviṣaḥ

(There were) ten thousand nine hundred recluses,[168] fourteen hundred[169] (of whom) are recorded as teachers with the splendour of supersensual knowledge.

151. sahasram antima-jñānās, tāvanto vikriyarddhikāḥ.
śatāni sapta-pañcāśac caturthâvagam āśritāḥ

One thousand possessed omniscience. So many could assume various forms. Five thousand seven hundred practised mind-reading.[170]

152. vādinaḥ ṣaṭ śatāny eva te sarve 'pi samuccitāḥ
abhyarṇī-kṛta-nirvāṇāḥ syuḥ sahasrāṇi ṣoḍaśa

Just six-hundred (yatis) all in all were disputants, sixteen thousand had the capacity to reach nirvāṇa.

153. Sulocanâdyāḥ ṣaṭ-triṃśat-sahasrāṇy āryikā vibhoḥ
śrāvakā lakṣam ekaṃ tu tri-guṇāḥ śrāvikās tataḥ

The Lord had thirty-six thousand nuns, among whom Sulocanā, and one lakh of lay adherents, but three times as many female lay followers as that.[171]

154. devā devyo 'py a-saṃkhyātāḥ saṃkhyātās tiryag-aṅginaḥ;
evaṃ dvādaśabhir yukto gaṇair dharmôpadeśanam

Innumerable gods and goddesses (as well as) animals were counted (among his adherents). In this way the Lord taught the Doctrine together with twelve gaṇas[172]

155. kurvāṇaḥ pañcabhir māsair virahī-kṛta-saptatiḥ
saṃvatsarāṇāṃ; māsaṃ sa saṃhṛtya vihṛti-kriyām

for seventy years less five months. After maintaining for one month pleasure-act(s)

156. ṣaṭ-triṃśan munibhiḥ sârdhaṃ pratimā-yogam āśritaḥ
Śrāvaṇe māsi saptamyāṃ sita-pakṣe dinâdime[173]
157. bhāge Viśākha-nakṣatre dhyāna-dvaya-samāśrayāt
guṇa-sthāna-dvaye sthitvā Sammedâcala-mastake

he restored to vows of selfcastigation (fasting) together with thirty-six monks[174] in the month Śrāvaṇa (July-August) on the seventh (day).[175] In the light half in the first part of the day in the constellation Veśākha (April-May), after a pair of meditations in two stages of purification,[176] standing on the top of the mountain Sammeda[177]

158. tat-kālôcita-kāryāṇi vartayitvā yathā-kramam
niḥśeṣa-karma-nirṇāśān nirvāṇe niścalaṃ sthitaḥ

he gradually did what was customary at that time, because he wanted to destroy his remaining karman, and he stood motionless in his nirvāṇa.[178]

159. kṛta-nirvāṇa-kalyāṇāḥ surêndrās taṃ vavandire
"vandāmahe vayaṃ câinaṃ nandituṃ sundarair guṇaiḥ"

The kings of the gods saluted him by hailing the festive day of his nirvāṇa: "we salute him and are very pleased with his noble qualities."

160. ādi-madhyânta-gambhīrāḥ santo 'mbo-nidhi-saṃnibhāḥ
udāharaṇam eteṣāṃ Pārśvo gaṇyaḥ kṣamāvatām

They resemble the ocean: deep at the beginning, in the middle and at the end. Pārśva should be counted an example for people here to be forbearing.

161. tvaj-janmâbhiṣavôtsave sura-girau svôcchvāsa-niḥśvāsajaiḥ
svargêśān bhṛśam ānayas tvam anilair āndola-līlāṃ muhuḥ.
kiṃ kuryāt tava tādṛśo 'yam amaras tvat-kṣānti-labdhôdayaḥ
pāṭhīno jaladher ivêty abhinutaḥ Pārśvo jinaḥ pātu naḥ.

At the festival of the ablution at your birth on the mountain of the gods, by the winds of your breathing, you very much brought the gods constantly to play the swing. "What can such an immortal here, (Śambara?),[179] whose good fortune was (only) obtained by your forbearance, do to you as brahmins would to the ocean[180]?" praised with these words the Jina Pārśva should protect us.[181]

162. "niṣkampaṃ tava śuklatām upagataṃ bodhaṃ payodhir mahā-
vātôddhūta-tanur vinīla-salilaḥ prāpnoti dūrān na tam
dhyānaṃ te vata[182] vâcalasya marutāṃ śvāsânilād vâmarāt
kṣobhaḥ kaḥ katham" ity abhiṣṭuti[183]-patiḥ Pārśva-prabhuḥ pātu naḥ

"With its dark water the ocean, the mass of which is tossed up by high winds, does not nearly reach that motionless knowledge of yours which has arrived at purity.[184] (Is) meditation (? far from > stronger than) the divine breath of the winds on the mountain (of the gods?)/ if meditation is compared to the divine breath (...), why worry (lit.: what disturbance is there)?" Thus praised, Lord Pārśva should protect us.[185]

163. tīrthêśāḥ sadṛśo guṇair an-aṇubhiḥ sarve 'pi dhairyâdibhiḥ
santy apy evam, adhīśa, viśva-viditās te te guṇāḥ prīṇanāḥ
tat sarvaṃ Kamaṭhāt tathā hi mahatāṃ śatroḥ kṛtâpakriyāt
khyātir yā mahatī na jātu cid asau mitrāt kṛtôpakriyāt

Though all such fordmakers without exception have coarse qualities, such as firmness, etc., yet, Lord, these various qualities of yours, as all know, are pleasing. For so all this (happens) because of Kamaṭha, the enemy of great (men), who has perpetrated an improper action.[186] Great renown never comes from a friend whom one has done a service (?).[187]

164. dūra-sthâmara-vikriyasya bhavato bādhā na śāntâtmano,
na krodho na bhayaṃ ca; tena na budhaiḥ "soḍhê"ti saṃstūyase,
māhātmya-praśamau tu vismaya-karau tau tena tīrthêśinaḥ
stotavyaṃ kim? iti stuto bhavatu naḥ Pārśvo bhavôcchittaye

You for whom harm from a deity (like Śambara) is remote and who are calm-minded have no adversaries (lit.: harassers). You neither know anger nor fear. For that reason you are not praised by wise men as being forbearing, but because of that, the magnanimity and tranquillity of mind of a fordmaker are wonderful. If one asks (iti):

"What is praiseworthy?" (the answer should be:) we should praise Pārśva in order to end our stay in the saṃsāra,

165. paśyâitau kṛta-vedinau hi Dharaṇau "dharmyāv" itîḍāṃ gatau
tāv evôpakṛtir na te tribhuvana-kśemâika-bhūmes tataḥ
bhūbhṛt-pāta-niṣedhanaṃ nanu kṛtaṃ cet prāktanôpadravāḥ
kair nâsann? iti sāra-saṃstuti-kṛtaḥ Pārśvo jinaḥ pātu naḥ

for look at Dharaṇendra (and Padmāvatī),[188] even these two grateful (deities), praised as virtuous, are of no help to you, for whom this earth is the only habitable one in the universe. Were mountains prevented from flying, if some had not previously caused trouble? The Jina Pārśva when thus clearly praised should protect us.[189]

166. bhedo 'dreḥ phaṇi-maṇḍapaḥ phaṇi-vadhū-channa kṣatir ghātināṃ
kaivalyâptir a-dhātu-deha-mahimā hānir bhavasyâmarī
bhītis tīrthakṛd-udgamo 'pagamanaṃ vighnasya câsan samaṃ
bhartur yasya sa saṃtatântaka-bhayaṃ hantûgra-vaṃśâgraṇī

The cloudburst, the canopy made by the snake('s hoods), the sunshade of the female snake (Padmāvatī),[190] the removal of those who cause damage, attaining omniscience, greatness of immaterial (?) physical appearance (and) eternal cessation of existence,[191] the danger (of Śambara and) becoming a fordmaker equally meant destroying an obstacle. (You,) the leader of a noble lineage, should remove the permanent fear of death from the person who has it.

167. "kiṃ dhyānāt phaṇinaḥ, phaṇîndra-yuvateḥ, kṣānter mahêndrāt svatas,
tantrān, mantra-vijṛmbhanād, vata ripor bhīter, ayasyôdayāt,
kālād, ghāti-hater[192] idaṃ śamam abhūd?"ity arghya-hastaiḥ surair
āśaṅkhyâmara [193]-vighna-vicyutir aghaṃ hanyāt sa dhīrâgraṇīḥ

"Was there happiness here (i.e., for you, Pārśva?) because of the meditation of the snake (Dharaṇendra), of the snake king's female attendant (Padmāvatī), of Indra's or your own forbearing, of the religious text, the saying of the charm, after the danger created by the enemy (Śabara was overcome), because of the occurrence of good fortune (?), the right time, the absence of blows (or: aggressivity)?"[194] thus possibly thought about by [the mass of] the gods deserving the respect shown to guests, he, no longer obstructed by a fearful deity and foremost in composedness, should eliminate evil (for us).

168. śrutvā yasya vaco 'mṛtaṃ śruti-śukhaṃ hṛdyaṃ hitaṃ hetuman
mithyātvaṃ divijo 'vamīd viṣam iva vyāviddha-vairôddhuraṃ
yaṃ stauti sma ca tādṛśo 'py upanata-śreyaḥ, sa Pārśvo vibhuṃ
vighnâughaṃ hari-saṃdhṛtâsana-śikhām adhyāsya siddho hatāt

After hearing the eternal, pleasing (and) useful feast for the ears, viz his (Pārśva's) words, the deity (Śaṃvara) became reasonable and gave up like poison the firm illusion of revenge [connected with it]. Pārśva is the Lord [195] to whom just such a one (as Śaṃvara) pays[196] homage. As you seated yourself on the highest throne, which is firmly supported by lions[197] (or: by Indra), and are liberated, remove (our) many troubles.

169. jātaḥ prāṅ Marubhūtir, anv ibha-patir, devaḥ Sahasrâra-jo
vidyêśo 'cyuta-kalpa-jaḥ kṣiti-bhṛtāṃ śrī-Vajranābhiḥ patiḥ
devo madhyama-madhyame nṛpa-guṇair *Ānanda-nāmânato*[198]
devêndro hata-ghāti-saṃhatir[199]; avatv asmān sa Pārśvêśvaraḥ

Lord Pārśva was first born as Marubhūti, then as an elephant-king, a Sahasrâra god, a vidyā-dhara,[200] a god in the Acyutakalpa heaven,[201] the happy king of kings Vajranābha,[202] as a god[203] in the very middle (of the ninefold Graiveya region),[204] as a humble (man) with royal qualities named ânanda[205], as a king of the gods without much aggressivity (lit.: without close contact with blows).[206] Lord Pārśva here may protect us.

170. Kamaṭhaḥ kukkuṭa-sarpaḥ, Pañcama-bhū-jo, 'hir abhavad, atha narake,
vyādho[207] (?)'dho-gaḥ, simho, narakī, nara-po 'nu Śambaro divi-jaḥ[208]

Kamaṭha was reborn a cock with a snake's head, then born in the Pañcamabhū[209] (hell), then as a snake,[210] in a(nother) hell,[211] as a low hunter[212], a lion,[213] an inmate of the (fourth) hell[214] and subsequently as king Śambara in heaven.[215]

Rare and new words

akṣa-sūtra 'rosary, chaplet' 51

agni 'three' 93

agraṇin 'leader; foremost' 166f.

abhinuta 'praised' 161

abhiṣava 'ablution, libation' 81 (cp), 88 (cp)

abhyarṇī-kṛta 'near' 152

A-cyuta-kalpaja 'deity in the Ac. heaven' 169

*anile yoge* 90

ātta-viśuddhika 'having obtained purity' 135

ā-pañcama-kṣiti-vyāpta 'reaching up to the extreme limit of the world' 71

ārādhanā (four ~) 'propitiatory declaration' 65, 68

ārdra-cetas 'friendly-minded' 141

ugra-vaṃśa 'of noble lineage' 166

unmeya 'height?' 69

ūru 'shank (metonym for: member') 77

kalyāṇa 'one of the five great events in the life of a Jina' 88f., 92, 126, 159

kukkuṭâhi 'cock with a serpent's head' apparently, rather than a serpent with a cock's head 23

kukkuṭôraga 'cock with a serpent's head' 29

kukkuṭa-sarpa 'cock with a serpent's head' 170

kṣiti, see pañcama-°

kha 'zero' 93

kha-catuṣka 'fourfold zero' 70

khala 'mischievous person' 3

gaṇêśa 'leader of a troop of monks' 45, 149

gulma-kheṭa-pura 'receptacle of a mass of phlegm: the body' 132

caturthâvaga 'the fourth knowledge: mind-reading' 151

tīrthakṛt (16 pratyayas of ~) 64

tīrthêśin 'fordmaker' 164

tri-prasruta- 'with the fluid streaming from three (places on its body)' 16

tri-bodha-dīdhiti 'brilliant with three(-fold) knowledge' 85

tri-viṣṭapa 'heaven' 81

tṛtīyâvagama 'avadhi-jñāna' 71

dāman 'wreath (in a dream symbol of the Doctrine)' 82

dinâdima 'daybreak' 143, 156

dīkṣā-Lakṣmī 'Lakṣmī of initiation' 130

deha-mahimā 'greatness of physical appearance, smartness' 166

dhīrâgraṇin 'foremost in composedness' 167

nandîśvara 'a'ṭâhnika, eight day paryu'aṇa' 44

nirṇāśa 'destruction' 158

nirvāṇa-kalyāṇa 'festive day of the nirvāṇa of a fordmaker' 159

paṭaha 'kettle drum beaten to announce the new day' 77

padmâbhiṣava 'sprinkling lotuses' 81

prakṣobha 'agitation' 100

pratimā-yoga 'observing vows of self-castigation, esp. fasting' 15f., 66, 156

pratyaya (sixteen ~) 'cause' 64

pratyūṣa-nāndī 'drum announcing daybreak' note 89

phaṇi-maṇḍapa 'bower or canopy of snake hoods' 166

Mandarâbhiṣava 'libation on Mt. Mandara' 81

mahîśa 'big landowner' 32

mukti-kanyā 'girl „Deliverance"' 130

vār-rāśi 'sāgara, ocean as measure of time' 41

vikriyarddhika 'with various forms, multiform' 151

vighnâugha 'having known much trouble' 168

vidyêśa 'vidyādhara' 169

vipulâdi-mati 'very knowledgeable (?)' 45

vibhaṅga 'fact of being distinguished, recognition' 137

viśākharkṣa 'forked tree' 76

viśuddhi-bhāj 'endowed with holiness or purity' 135

vihṛti-kriyā 'wandering (?)' 155

vyāvarṇayati 'to explain' 123

śruti-sukha 'feast for the ears' 168

saṃśayâspada 'authoritative word against uncertainty' 46

sattva-sāra 'best of creatures' (BHSD) 136

samāmāna 'measure of time' 119

Sahasrâra-ja 'a deity' 169

svara 'seven' 93

svargêśa 'deity' 161

Subject index (vs numbers)

adolescence with 16 years 95

ahiṃsā practiced by elephant 20

alliteration 158; note 178

animals as Pārśva's devotees 154

ārādhanā fourfold 64, 68

belief, tetrad of wrong ~ 110

bhaṭṭāraka 34

Bhils note 42

Cain and Abel motif, see fratricide

canopy of appearance 71

canopy of snake hoods 139, 166; note 156

change of appearance 71

chaplet, see: rosary

churning water does not produce ghee 112

cock with snake head note 30; vs 170

complexion, dark ~ Pārśva 94; of Dhanya 133; of Tripṛṣṭha note 112

deliverance as a woman 130; note 143

dreams of pregnant queen 76, 79 (meaning unknown to dreamer), 82ff.; notes 87f., 91f., 95

drum announcing daybreak note on vs 77.

eight days' festival 44, 58

face of woman likened to moon 50

feet, obeisance to ~ 147

fish, auspicious sign in dream 83

five fires, penance amidst 98, 107

foot, standing on one ~ as a penance 107

forbearance, Pārśva as an example of ~ 160

fratricide 11

Gommatesa Thudi note 53

grey hair motif 61

hair = evil note 57

hair of Pārśva removed by Indra 131

hair of Mahāvīra note 144

horses imported into India 121

image of Jina worship, sense of ~ doubted 47

Jambu-dvīpa 'isle of the Jambul or Black plum' 6

Ka(ma)ṭha note 117

Laukântika devas 125

Lion throne, Pārśva on ~ 168

lotus dear to the three worlds 82

moonlike face 50

Mucalinda note 156

musth causing three streams of ichor vs 16

namaskāra mantra 130; note 55

Nandîśvara 45

niyoga reversed 21

order of monks, did Pārśva have an ~? note 166

pañcama-kṣiti 'all bordered hinterlands' note 81

Pārśva, etymology of ~ notes 1 and 106

praise of Pārśva in order to get protection 161f., 164f.

Pūrvas memorized 149

Rathāvarta 58

rosary 52; note 55

Sammeda, -ta 14

self-torture to secure holiness 98, 107

seven days' attack 138; ~ yoga 135

seven hundred ascetics 146, 151

snakes in log cut through 103

soul colour 63

śrīvatsa sign 17

stalking note 21

Subhauma passage (vss. 103-118) interpolated? note 131

tetrad of wrong beliefs 110

Tīrthakṛt-ship, sixteen causes (pratyaya) of ~ 64

tortoise and snake enmity note 159

umbrella representing the Doctrine 2

Vajraghoṣa elephant 12

vimāna of the sun 54, 57

waist (woman's slim ∼ as beauty ideal) 40

white umbrella of the dharma 2

wife of Brahmin loved like another Veda 8














Āvassaya Nijjutti with Haribhadra's commentary



Bhāvadeva, Pārśvanāthacaritra



Boehtlingk, Indische Sprüche



Devendra, Uttarādhyayana-ṭīkā, see Charpentier



Hemacandra, Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra



Hemavijaya, Pārśvanāthacarita






Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary



Pannālāl Jain, Hindī Paraphrase of the Mahāpurāṇa



Böhtlingk & Roth, Sanskrit Wörterbuch



Dhaneśvara, Cauppannamahāpurisacariya






see Hemac.






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