Acharanga Bhasyam ► Chapter VIII — Liberation ► Section — 1 ► Sūtras 9-16 : Judiciousness

Posted: 07.05.2011

8.9 se jaheyaṃ bhagavayā paveditaṃ āsupaṇṇeṇa jāṇayā pāsayā.

The monk sould explain the doctrine just as it was propounded by Lord Mahāvīra, the knower and seer of truth.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 9

On the occassion of the discussion of the nature of truth, one should propound as it was propounded by the Lord.[1] Lord Vardhamāna Swāmi (Mahāvīra) had instantaneous wisdom. On account of being possessed of instantaneous wisdom, he is the knower and the seer.[2] The Lord 'therefore' has propounded the doctrine on logical reasoning, that is the doctrine of standpoints or the doctrine of non-absolutism. One should take resort to that doctrine of reasoning.

8.10 aduvā guttī vaogoyarassa tti bemi.

Or he should observe abstinence from speech - thus do I say.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 10

An ascetic should explain the queries of the heretics, knowing his own ability. If he finds himself unable to answer the questions, he should keep silent. In the Cūrṇi, the word 'abstinence from speech' has been explained from the practical standpoint: "He should resort to such reply: 'we are the followers of the scriptures propounded by the seers; if you desire to discuss about them, we shall discuss in Prakrit'. If absolute silence is observed, there occurs bad impression on the novices and the like, or negligence of faith, or abuse of faith. Now if he is unable to carry debate in the Prakrit language too, he should say: 'our scriptures have been propounded in the Ardhamāgadhi dialect by omniscient Lord Mahāvīra, with equal consideration of all creatures, for the benefit of women, children, old people, illiterate, and it is not proper to disclose the sacred lore to others'. And therefore abstinence from speech i.e. silence is recommended, as also has been said - the sacred scripture is not a subject of debate; moreover, the debate may, produce attachment and hatred'. Thus the monk should resort to an answer, that is, appropriate with respect to the place and the time.[3]

In the Vrtti, the abstinence from speech has been explained as the proper restraint of speech.[4]

8.11 savvattha sammayaṃ pāvaṃ.

The sin (violence) is allowed by all heretic schools of thought.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 11

'All heretic schools of thought' means in all affairs including the discourse on truth, the sin that is committing of injury and the like is allowed, desired and not prohibited (by such people). The monk should say to them 'such sin is not accepted by us as proper'.

8.12 tameva uvāikamma.

The monk should lead his life by abstaining from such sin.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 12

(He may Continue:) 'This is why I avoid resort to sin in my life. Therefore, the discussion that may give rise to the occasion of violence and the like is not commendable for me'.

8.13 esa mahaṃ vivege viyāhite.

(The monk further says,) 'This is said to be our discrimination’.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 13

The monk may further say, "this is our discrimination." In this way the ascetic should keep himself[5] away from the heretics; he should not indulge into the cause of inflow of karma such as violence and the like.[6]

8.14 game vā aduvā raṇṇe? ṇeva gāme ṇeva raṇṇe dhammamāyāṇaha - pavedittaṃ māhaṇeṇa maīmayā.

Is the practice of religious discipline possible only in a village or only in the forest? The omniscient Lord Mahāvīra replied. "It is not possible exclusively in the village or in the forest."

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 14

'How could the persons who live austere life and dwell in forest can be heretics?' To the querry "why should such persons be avoided," the Sutra says - 'righteousness consists in the practice of the five moral acts, viz; knowledge, intuition, conduct, austerity and religious exertion, which can be practiced in a village or in a forest. Without the abovesaid five, the practice is not possible either in village or in a forest. This has been declared by the Omniscient Lord'.[7]

8.15 jāmā tiṇṇi udāhiyā, jesu ime āriyā saṃbujjhamāṇā samutthiyā.

There are three age-groups in which the noble ones, being awakened, can get initiated.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 15

Just as there was controversy over the issue of practice of discipline with reference to village and forest, similarly there was difference in respect of the time of renunciation. With reference to the time of initiation, the Lord has propounded the three age-groups.[8] According to the Cūrṇi, the first age-group consists of the eighth to the thirtieth. The middle age group from the thirtieth to the sixtieth. There after starts the third age-group. In all these three age-groups, the noble ones, being awakened,[9] get up for the life of self-restraint. In other words, they renounce the world.

In the present Sūtra the age-groups have been defined with reference to the time of renunciation. According to this, a child after eight is entitled for renunciation.

Here too young and too old are prohibited. The rests are approved of.[10]

In the right side of seventy, a person is considered old.[11]

8.16 je ṇivvuyā pāvehiṃ kammehiṃ, aṇiyāṇā te viyāhiyā.

Those who desist from evil activities like violence are free from bondage.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 16

'Bondage' means worldly tie. The parents and property are material bondage. The sensual objects and passions are spiritual bondage. Those who have no bondage are free from bondage. 'Free from bondage' means free from worldly ties. A person can not become free from bondage simply by renouncing the world. Only those who desist from evil activities such as ommitting violence and the like, are tranquillised. Only such persons are free from bondage.

Footnotes:
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