Iconography of Early Jainism (Part 3)

Posted: 28.11.2011
Updated on: 02.07.2015

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The Italian version of this essay, titled "Jaina, Iconografia" was published in Enciclopedia dell'Arte Antica. Classica e Orientale (Ed. by G.P. Carratelli, Secondo Supplemento, Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1995, pp. 65-73). For the English edition the section of illustrations has been extended.


 

Iconography of Early Jainism (Part 3)

 

Bibliography

I. Jaina Religion:

  • G. Bühler, On the Indian Sect of the Jainas, translated from the German, edited with an outline of Jaina Mythology by Jas. Burgess. London 1903.
  • C. Caillat, “Jainism“, in: M. Eliade (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Religion. New York 1987. Refer to p. 514 (Vol. 7) for a bibliographical survey.
  • J. Deleu, “Die Mythologie des Jinismus“, in: H.W. Haussig (ed.), Wörterbuch der Religion V. Stuttgart 1984.
  • H. von Glasenapp, Der Jainismus. Hildesheim 1984 (second reprint).
  • H. Jacobi, “Jainism“, in: J. Hastings (ed.). The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Edinburgh 1908-26.


II. Early Indian Art:

The reader is mainly referred to the following publications:

  • F.M. Asher, The Art of Eastern India, 300-800. Minneapolis 1980. See pl. 15 for a Rajgir Jina of the Gupta age with unusual pedestal motifs.
  • S.J. Czuma, Kushan Sculpture. Cleveland 1985. Refer to pp. 227-231 for dated Jaina images.
  • J.C. Harle, Gupta Sculpture. Oxford 1974.
  • N.P. Joshi, Mathura Sculptures. Mathura 1966.
  • G. Kreisel, Die Siva-Bildwerke der Mathura-Kunst. Stuttgart 1986.
  • J.E. van Lohuizen-de Leeuw, The “Scythian“ Period. Leiden 1949.
  • J.E. van Lohuizen-de Leeuw, “The second century of the Kaniṣka era“, in: South Asian Studies 2.1986, pp. 1-9.
  • G. von Mitterwallner, Münzen der späten Kuṣāṇas... Teil 1. München 1983.
  • G. von Mitterwallner, Kuṣāṇa Coins and Sculptures. Mathurā 1986. See pl. 26-30, 32-35 for pedestal friezes.
  • H. und I. Plaeschke, Frühe indische Plastik. Leipzig 1988.
  • K.V.S. Rajan, Cave Temples of the Deccan. New Delhi 1981. See pp. 72ff. for Aihole and pp. 78-79 for Badami.
  • N.R. Ray, K. Khandalavala, and S. Gorakshkar, Eastern Indian Bronzes. New Delhi 1986. Illustrations of the Chausa bronzes.
  • J.M. Rosenfield, The Dynastic Art of the Kushans. Berkeley, Los Angeles 1967.
  • R.C. Sharma, Buddhist Art of Mathura. Delhi 1984.
  • J.Ph. Vogel, La sculpture de Mathura. Paris et Bruxelles 1930.
  • J.G. Williams, The Art of Gupta India. Princeton 1982.

III. Early Jaina Art

Our list includes a few general publications on Jaina art.

  • V.S. Agrawala, Mathura Museum Catalogue, Pt. III, Jaina Tirthankaras and Other Miscellaneous Figures. Lucknow 1952.
  • A. Ghosh (ed.), Jaina Art and Architecture, Vols.I-III. New Delhi 1974-75. See pl. 12 (Vol.1) for a scene of worship with āyāgapaas.
  • D. Mitra, Udayagiri and Khandagiri, New Delhi 1975.
  • G. von Mitterwallner, “The Pārśva of the inscription in Cave No.20 at Udayagiri (M.P.)“, in: F.M. Asher and G.S. Gai (ed.), Indian Epigraphy. New Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta 1985.
  • G. von Mitterwallner, “Inscribed fragmentary sculpture of the year 14 in the State Museum, Lucknow“, in: S.D. Trivedi (ed.), Essays on Indology, Polity and Administration, Vols.I-II, Delhi 1989 [R.K. Trivedi Fel. Vol.].
  • H.K. Prasad, “Jaina Bronzes in the Patna Museum“, in: Shri Mahavir Jaina Vidyalaya Golden Jubilee Volume, Pt. I. Bombay 1968. Chausa bronzes etc.
  • U.P. Shah, Studies in Jaina Art. Banaras 1955.
  • U.P. Shah, “Bronze Hoard from Vasantagadh“, in: Lalit Kala 1/2, 1955/56. We connect the dates of figs. 1-2 with a later era than the author.
  • U.P. Shah, Akota Bronzes, Bombay 1959.
  • U.P. Shah, Jaina-Rūpa-Mandana (Jaina Iconography), Vol. 1, New Delhi 1987. See fig. 18 for “pre-canonical“ Jina figures.
  • U.P. Shah and M.A. Dhaky (ed.), Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture. Ahmedabad 1975. We connect the dates of figs. 11-12 in Paper No. 26 with a later era than the author.
  • V.A. Smith, The Jain Stūpa and Other Antiquities of Mathura. Varanasi, Delhi 1969 (reprint).
  • R.C. Sharma, “Jaina sculptures of the Gupta age in the State Museum, Lucknow“, in: Shri Mahavir Jaina Vidyalaya G.J. V., Pt. I. Bombay 1968.

 


 

 

Plates

 

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Fig. 1. Tympanon composition. Verandah of a rock-cut monastery, Khandagiri Cave 3.

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Fig. 2. Ayagapata with seated Jina and astamangala set, Mathura.

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Fig. 3. Metal image of Parsva (five snake-hoods), North or Western India.

 

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Fig. 4. Seated Parsva with "smooth hair".

 

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Fig. 5. Slab with narrative motif, Mathura.

 

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Fig. 6. Two sides of a "sarvatobhadrika pratima", Mathura.

 

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Fig. 7. Seated Jina with "curls", Mathura.

 

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Fig. 8. Head of a Jina with "wavy hair", Mathura.

 

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Fig. 9. Seated Jaina goddess (Sarasvati), Mathura.

 

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Fig. 10. Metal image of Rsabha (hair in the form of "extended strands"), Mathura.

 

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Fig. 11. Seated Jina, Gupta art of Mathura.

 

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Fig. 12. Jina panel on one side of the Kahaum pillar (AD 460), Gupta art of Northern India.

 

[Figs. 13 and 14 are currently not available in the authors archive and will be added later]

 

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Fig. 15. Metal image of the first Jina Rsabha. Vasantgarh hoard.

 

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Fig. 16. Metal image of the eigth Jina Candraprabha, Chausa hoard.

 

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Fig. 17. (left) Rsabha with dhoti, metal image of the Svetambaras, Akota hoard.

Fig. 18. (right) Jivantasvamin, metal image of the Svetambaras, Akota hoard.

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