Two Overviews [Part 3]

Posted: 23.03.2012
Updated on: 02.07.2015

The paper was published in Berliner Indologische Studien Vol. 20 (2012), pp. 7-35.


Incongruous units (monastic), terms forming chains (canonical): 1-4

(1) Āvaśyaka Sūtra. Bruhn Āv: 22-25; Leumann Üb: 6-8, 16-19 (Baumann Āv: 15-18 and 44-54); Dundas Jn: 169-173; JĀGM (Āv): 333-358. - Six basic parts: sāmāyika (equanimity, 'pious conduct'), caturviṃśatistava (praise of the 24 Jinas), vandana (formalized dialogue of the pupil with the teacher), pratikramaṇa (confession: daivasika or rātrika), kāyotsarga (ascetic posture, meditation), pratyākhyāna (renunciation). The date of the Āvaśyaka Sūtra is unknown, the chronological relation to the Prakīrṇakas (also late canonical) has not yet been discussed, and the Prakīrṇakas (also undated) may belong to more than one period. “The Āvaśyakasūtra is not one of the old texts of the Śvetāmbara scriptural canon, but its importance can be seen from its near submersion during the medieval period under layers of commentary and other more loosely affiliated types of text which have been attracted into the work's orbit” (Dundas Jn: 169-170). - See also 14 (Meditation).

(2a) Ekottarikā (chain of terms, in our cases thirty-three terms). - (2a) Ut 31 (called Caraṇavidhi, Jacobi: “Mode of life”). Unconnected spiritual terms, metrical version, The initial section is in both versions multiplex (e.g. two to seven multiplex, eight to thirty-three simple). Jacobi (Ut): 180-184. Verses 2-20 of Ut 31 accommodate Ser. Nos. 1-33. The Caraṇavidhi has 21 verses. - Ut 31, vss.3 (Ser. No. 2) and 20 (Ser. Nos. 31-33): >> rāga-dose ya do pāve pāva-kamma-pavattaṇe / je bhikkhū rumbhaī niccaṃ se na acchai maṇḍale. << Love and hatred are two evils which produce bad karman; if a monk always avoids them, he will not stand within the circle (of transmigration). - >> siddhâi-guṇa-jogesu tettīsâsāyaṇāsu ya / je bhikkhū jayaī niccaṃ se na acchai maṇḍale. << A monk who always exerts himself with regard to the (thirty-one) qualities of Siddhas, etc. (?), the (thirty-two) Yogas (Kamptz St: 23) and the thirty-three āsāyaṇās, he will not stand within the circle (of transmigration). - Siddha = god, semi-god, emancipated being; Siddhâdi-guṇa-Yogeṣu, compare for Ser. Nos. 31-32 our section 2b; āsāyaṇā (Skt. āśātanā) = offence of disrespect. - It seems that the Serial Number (1... 33) is generally also the number of the objects. Sūtrakṛtānga in the chain of 1-33 is Ser. No. 23 because of its twenty-three chapters. But Ācārānga (Ser. No. 28) has now 24 chapters, and no longer 28 (28 is at present only the Serial Number). Jacobi supra: 183, fn.6.

(2b) Unconnected spiritual terms, prose version. JĀGM (Āv): 339-341. Ser. Nos. 1-3 and 31-33: >> paḍikkamāmi ekkavihe asaṃjame (1), paḍikkamāmi dohiṃ bandhaṇehiṃ rāga-bandhaṇeṇaṃ, dosa-bandhaṇeṇaṃ (2), paḍikkamāmi tihiṃ daṇḍehiṃ maṇa-daṇḍeṇaṃ, vaya-daṇḍeṇaṃ, kāya-daṇḍeṇaṃ (3),... paḍikkamāmi ega-tīsāe Siddhâi-guṇehiṃ (31), paḍikkamāmi battīsāë Joga-saṃgahehiṃ (32), paḍikkamāmi tettīsāë Āsāyaṇāhiṃ (33) <<.

All the four tracts (2a/2b and, infra, 6a/6b) share thirty-three numbers and a reference to the āsāyaṇās. - Refer for numbers in general (numbers as vehicle of rhetorics) to Kamptz St: 23, to Caillat Ca: 50 (séries numériques) and again to Bruhn Āv: 23, fn. 22.

(3) Five times five bhāvanās (Pkt., Jacobi: 'clauses' = sentences). JĀGM (Āc): 278-293 (776 -792); Jacobi (Āc): 202-210; Schubring Do: 301-302 (bhāvanās in Ācārānga, bhāvanā parallels in Praśnavyākaraṇa). Praśnavyākaraṇa contains prāṇa-(prāṇi)-vadha (Pkt. pāṇa-(pāṇi)-vaha) etc. and ahiṃsā etc., five sins plus five renunciations (Suttāgame I: 1199-1239; Schubring Do: 94-95; Weber He: 326-335). - The bhāvanās (Pkt. bhāvaṇā) are a section of Ācārānga II (15). The bhāvanā chains (each of the five vows has an introduction plus five bhāvanās) are easy. Below we demonstrate the bhāvanās (five renunciations: paccakkhāmi...), quoting always the first sentence of the first bhāvanā. First great vow, ahiṃsā, bhāvanā-i: a Nirgrantha is careful in his walk, not careless; second great vow, sūnṛta, bhāvanā-i: a Nirgrantha speaks after deliberation, not without deliberation; third great vow, asteya, bhāvanā-i: a Nirgrantha begs after deliberation (for a limited ground), not without deliberation; fourth great vow, maithuna, bhāvanā-i: a Nirgrantha does not continually discuss topics relating to women; fifth great vow, parigraha, bhāvanā-i: if a creature with ears hears agreeable and disagreeable sounds, it should not be attached to... the agreeable or disagreeable sounds. - All the bhāvanās consist of several (often short or abbreviated) sentences, and there is no regular subdivision of the bhāvanās into micro-pentads. The five passages introducing the five vows consist each of different statements. - Refer for different readings and further versions to JĀGM (Āc), pp. 278-293 (776-792), text below the line.

(4) Tapas. Leumann Aup, § 30; JĀGM (Vyã II): 1061-1068; Ut 30, 8-28 (tapas external) and 30-36 (tapas internal); Ut 30,1-6 (tapas versus karman). Tapas (Pkt. tava) is an independent treatise, existing in three versions (Aup/ Vyā II/Ut); two versions (Aup/Vyā II) show only minor textual differences. Schubring Do mentions the two Prakrit versions (Aup/Vyā II) and TS (pp. 311-316). The tradition distinguishes between external tapas and internal tapas, both sixfold (1.I. anaśana etc., 2.I. prayaścitta etc.); Ut 30 has been mentioned. The twelve 'items' (1.I-VI, 2.I-VI) differ in their respective structures (divisions, subdivisions, 'subsubdivisions'). - (Example:) external tapas, item [1] VI, pratisamlīnatā (Pkt. paḍisaṃlīṇayā, Leumann Aup, Glossar, p.132). Pratisamlīnatā consists of four sub-items (i-iv: >> indiya-paḍisaṃlīṇayā, kasāya-paḍisaṃlīṇayā, joga-paḍisaṃlīṇayā, vivitta-sayaṇāsaṇa-sevaṇayā <<). Sub-item iv (vivitta-) is in character different from sub-items i-iii (indiya- to joga-). The sub-items i-iii fall into 5-4-3 items of a still lower order. >> soya, cakkhu, ghāṇa, jibbhā, phāsa [i]; koha, māṇa, māyā, loha [ii]; maṇa, vai, kāya [iii]; jaṃ ṇaṃ ārāmesu... [iv, no list]. << sevaṇayā is sevanatā (Glossar). The item [1] VI (paḍi°) is not quite convincing (structure of the tetras). - See (14) for vyutsarga and kāyôtsarga.

1-4 are no subjects (terms) in the usual sense, and tapas (4) is an oversized subject. Efforts to define tapas, what is tapas (?), are rare.


Comparatively congruous units, terms forming chains (canonical): 5-10

(5) 22 parīṣahas (Pkt. parīsaha), i.e. causes of trouble to an ascetic. Schubring Do: 308-310; JĀGM (Sama): 367-368 (22); Ut, Ch 2. The known lists are in prose. See Ut 2 for its prose list, followed by drastic descriptions in vss. (e.g. vss. 34/35 or pricking of grass, vss. 36/37 or filth on the body); 46 verses. - The prose list of Ut, Ch 2: >> (1) diginchā-parīsahe, (2) pivāsā-parīsahe, (3) sīya-parīsahe, (4) usiṇa-parīsahe...... (20) pannā-parīsahe, (21) (an)nāṇa-parīsahe, (22) daṃsaṇa (sammatta)-parīsahe. << The last three parīsahas are not clear (20-22 not in keeping with 1-19). Refer to Schubring for several sources besides Ut, Ch 2 and Samavāyānga. See also 11 infra (Drinking, washing...).

(*) Daśāśrutaskandha (a Cheda Sūtra, contents not homogeneous). - Ācāradaśāḥ 1 (Schubring Ch: 5-6: asamāhi-ṭṭhāṇas), Ācāradaśāḥ 2 (Schubring Ch: 6-7: sabalas), Ācāradaśāḥ 3 (Schubring Ch: 7-8: āsāyaṇās, version 'sehe rāiṇiyassa'), Ācāradaśāḥ 4 (Schubring Ch: 8-11:... viṇaya), Ācāradaśāḥ5 (Schubring Ch: 11-13, Suttāgame II: 924-925, Tatia As: 36-40: citta-samāhi-ṭṭhāṇas, clairvoyance), Ācāradaśāḥ 6 (Schubring Ch: 13-15: ekkārasa uvāsaga-paḍimāo, layman becoming like monk), Ācāradaśāḥ 7 (Schubring Do: 277, Schubring Ch: 15-19: bārasa bhikkhu-paḍimāo, arrangement of fast, bringing the body into ascetic position). Ācāradaśāḥ 8 (Mahāvīra: biography) is a quasi-chapter of the Cheda Sūtra, a work in its own right (mainly biographical contents, generally known as 'Kalpa Sūtra'). Ācāradaśāḥ 9-10 (Schubring Do: 110-111; Schubring Ch: 19-28; 9-10 are partly narrative and differ in character from 1-7 and 8). - Schubring has analysed the complete Cheda Sūtra (including separate Kalpa Sūtra, i.e. Cheda Sūtra 8); Do: 109-111; Suttāgame II: 919-946. - Ācāradaśāḥ 4 (vinaya, No. 15) is later than the related tenfold subject (sāmāyārī) of No. 9 (icchā, micchā, tahakkāro...).

(6a) 33 āsāyaṇās, chain of clichés ('āsāyaṇā sehassa...'); Ācāradaśāḥ 3. - Schubring Do: 265, 278; Tatia As: 27-30; Suttāgame II: 920-922; JĀGM (Sama): 389-390. Violation of good conduct vis-a-vis an older monk. - Āsāyaṇās 2-4, 33: >> sehe rāiṇiyassa purao gantā bhavai, āsāyaṇā sehassa (2); sehe rāiṇiyassa sapakkhaṃ gantā bhavai, āsāyaṇā sehassa (3); sehe rāiṇiyassa āsannaṃ ṭhiccā bhavai, āsāyaṇā sehassa (4)....... sehe rāiṇiyassa uccāsaṇaṃsi vā, samāsanaṃsi vā, ciṭṭhittā vā, nisīittā vā, tuyaṭṭittā vā bhavai, āsāyaṇā sehassa (33) <<. - āsāyaṇā (Skt. āśātanā): disrespectfulness; seha: disciple; all members end in āsāyaṇā sehassa; rāiṇiya is an older monk. - Refer for 6a/b to 2a/b. Sections 6a and 6b differ in their contents from one another and from 2a/2b, the contents are again spiritual (but now in a more specialized sense). See Tatia supra for translation.

(6b) 33 āsāyaṇās, chain of clichés ('arahantāṇaṃ āsāyaṇāe...'). - Tatia As: 29-30; JĀGM (Daś/Ut/Āv): 341. Members 1-19 end with āsāyaṇāe. - Āsāyaṇās 1-4, 32-33: >> (paḍikkamāmi) arahantāṇaṃ āsāyaṇāe (1), siddhāṇaṃ āsāyaṇāe (2), āyariyāṇaṃ āsāyaṇāe (3), uvajjhāyāṇaṃ āsāyaṇāe (4),...... asajjhāie sajjhāiyaṃ (32), sajjhāie na sajjhāiyaṃ (33) <<. Members 1-19: I repent of impolite conduct in respect of arhats... devas... etc.; members 20-33 are not uniform. See Tatia for translation. - Refer for the four āsāyaṇā tracts again to 2a/2b and 6a/6b.

(7) 20 asamādhi-sthānas, Ācāradaśāḥ 1. Schubring Do: 278; Schubring Ch: 5-6; Suttāgame II: 919; Tatia As: 11-13; JĀGM (Sama): 364 (20). - Sthānas [supra] 1-3: >> davadava-cāri yāvi bhavati, ap(p)amajjita-cāri yāvi bhavati, duppamajjita-cāri yāvi bhavati... << davadava-cāri: walking quickly; ap(p)amajjita-cāri: walking without wiping off the place with the broom; duppamajjita-cāri: walking by badly wiping off the place with the broom (Tatia As: 11). - It seems that the broom was not used when walking. “Purpose of Rayaharaṇa: It was a broom the sole purpose of which was the wiping of the places where a monk wanted to sit [!] or lie down [!] or where he wanted to lengthen or contract his limbs [!], so that the living beings might not get injured.” Deo Mo: 272. According to Schubring Do the broom “serves for clearing from living beings those places where something is to be laid down or where one wants to step on” (p. 259). Like alms-bowl and mouth-cloth, the broom is a sort of attribute of the monk (various complicated descriptions of the two utensils). - Sthānas [supra] 16-18: >> kalaha-kare; sadda-kare; jhanjha-kare <<. - (Schubring Do: 278:) “We have 21 sabala which, acc. to Dasā 2; Samav. 32a, range among gross offences, whereas the 20 asamāhi (Dasā 1, Samav. 37b) are considered acts of rashness rather than of calculation.” - The citta-samādhi-sthānas (Ācāradaśāḥ 5: clairvoyance) are not connected with the asamādhi-sthānas.

(8) 21 sabalas (Skt. śabalas), Ācāradaśāḥ 2, Schubring Do: 278 (supra); Suttāgame II: 919-920; Tatia As: 14-20; JĀGM (Sama): 365-366 (21). - Items 1-4: >> hattha-kammaṃ karemāṇe sabale, mehuṇaṃ paḍisevamāṇe sabale, rāi-bhoyaṇaṃ karemāṇe sabale, āhā-kammaṃ bhunjamāṇe sabale <<. - Sabala sinner, sin (transgression). Āhākamma is Skt. (?) ādhākarma (Schubring Do: 272, fn. 3); food must not be āhākamma, prepared in advance (ibid.: 272; Jain Pi: 64-144). - The sabala chain is a wild enumeration of incongruous offences (see also Tatia supra on monastic offences in Jainism, Buddhism and Dharmaśāstra).

(9) 10 forms of sāmāyārī (Skt. sāmācārī). Schubring Do: 247-248 ('kappa-ṭṭhiis', ten forms of sāmāyārī); JĀGM (Sthā): 305 (749); Ut 26, vss. 2-4 and 5-7 (Jacobi Ut: 142); Baumann Āv: 24 foll. (pp. 24-25: further sources); Tatia As: 5-10 ('sāmāyārī literature'). - Ut 26 (Sāmāyārī, vs. 5 with sāmāyārīs 1-4): >> gamaṇe [leaving] āvassiyaṃ kujjā, ṭhāṇe [entering] kujjā nisīhiyaṃ/ āpuchhaṇaṃ sayaṃ-karaṇe, para-karaṇe paḍipucchaṇaṃ,... << Baumann (Āv: 24 foll.) supplies an extensive study of āvassiyā and nisīhiyā (Skt. āvaśyakī and naiṣedhikī). “To begin with,... the terms āvassiyā and nisīhiyā have to be defined more exactly” (p. 24). - Complete list (1-10) according to Sthānānga (supra): >> icchā, micchā, taha-kkāro, āvassiyā ya nisīhiyā / āpucchaṇā ya paḍipucchā, chandaṇā ya, nimantaṇā // uvasampayā ya kāle... <<. - See (15) on Ācāradaśāḥ 4 (Skt. vinaya, Pkt. viṇaya): no. 4 has no connection with our present number (9).

Refer for the 'Kalpa Sūtra' (= Ācāradaśāḥ 8) to Jacobi (KS): 217-311. The last part of the Kalpa Sūtra (three parts in all) is called Sāmāyārī or Pajjosavaṇākappa, ibid.: 296-311. - Schubring (Do: 247) observes: “All that a good monk practises or from what he abstains (samācāra) adds up to the sāmāyārī. In its special sense, however, the word applies to ten deportments ['Umgangsformen'] of a monk...”. Alsdorf (Ut, p. 27) writes: “The whole rest of the chapter [Ut 26, vss. 8-52] is taken up with something quite different [different from Ut 26, vss. 1-7]; it prescribes a detailed time-table for the monk's day and night.”

(10) Tenfold prāyaścitta (Pkt. pāyacchitta), part of tapas, i.e. item I of abhyantara tapas (= 2,I). Schubring Do: 281-282; Leumann Aup: 40; Caillat At: 116-185; JĀGM (Sthā): 299 (733); Ut 30 (tapas), vs. 31. - Aup: 40 (tenfold prāyaścitta): >> āloyaṇârihe, paḍikkamaṇârihe, tad-ubhayârihe, vivegârihe, viosaggârihe, tavârihe, chedârihe, mūlârihe, aṇavaṭṭhappârihe, pāranciyârihe <<. The usage of -arihe in āloyaṇârihe etc. is not clear (relevant to āloyaṇā etc?). There are (i) ten different forms of prāyaścitta and (ii) additional varieties of atonement (no general and inclusive term for i and ii); see Caillat At, Contents, pp. 9-10. - āloyaṇā / paḍikkamaṇa: Leumann Aup, Glossar p.102; Schubring Do: 281: “report (āloyaṇā) and confession (paḍikkamaṇa)”.

We treat several categories only casually (“anthropological categories”). The leśyās (Pkt. lesā, Ut 34) stand for the six (black, blue, grey, red, yellow, white) colours of the soul, e.g. Ut 34,4-5 (black leśyā: >> jīmūya-niddha-saṃkāsā <<, blue leśyā: >> nīlâsoga-saṃkāsā <<). There are four categories (qualifications): colour, taste, smell, touch (Schubring Do: 195-197). Further description of leśyās: Ut 34,44 >> esā neraiyāṇaṃ lesāṇa ṭhiī u vaṇṇiyā hoi / teṇa paraṃ vocchāmi tiriya-maṇussāṇa devāṇaṃ. << The four different classes (neraiya etc.) have leśyās of different duration (differences between the four classes and within each class). - The first three colours designate bad characters, whereas the last three colours designate good characters. 'Bad' and 'good' are, however, not to be understood as opposed and clearly distinguished ethical categories; the discussion is gradual (6-5-4-3-2-1, compare the six colours). The theory is mainly based on six different characters and six colours of the soul (Glasenapp Jn: 209-211, 209 “better and better”). - Leśyā is the usual form in Jainology, but it is not correct Sanskrit.

Alsdorf calls the original leśyā theory “a loan from a rival sect” (Ut: 68) and describes the leśyā doctrine on p. 62 as “one of the strangest chapters of Jain dogmatics.” Alsdorf has studied the leśyā chapter of Uttarādhyayana (Ch. 34) in detail. His main point is the combination of early ślokas and late āryās (Ut, Ch 34, pp. 62-68, especially p. 67). He describes the āryās of Ut 34 even as “typical specimens of late scholastic systematization and calculation” (p. 65). - Refer for (non-Jaina) speculation about psychic colours and spiritual classes to Basham Āj: 139, 243-245 (and Chapter XIII in general).

Another example of soteriological grading is a group of human beings, five different characters (pulāga, bausa, kusīla, niyaṇṭha, siṇāya), described in Schubring Do: 323-324. The theorizing element is similar to the leśyā theory.

W. Schubring (Do) distinguishes in the case of activities (kiriyās, kiriyā-ṭhāṇas) between various 'groups' (§§ 99 and 100, i.e. pp. 197-201). § 99 covers the well-known Sūtrakṛtānga sequence of thirteen activities (structure not very clear). Our first example may be number 12: >> ahāvare bārasame kiriyā-thāṇe lobha-vattie tti āhijjai... 'ahaṃ na hantavvo, anne hantavvā.' << no. 12 contains a description of numerous incongruous and unpleasant characters (but nos. 1-12 are all more or less negative); JĀGM (Sū): 162-163. - Second example (no. 13): >> ahāvare terasame kiriyā-thāṇe iriyā-vahie tti āhijjai... <<. JĀGM (Sū): 163-164. The text contains a description of the monk who acts in an exemplary fashion: >>... aṇagārassa... āuttaṃ gacchamāṇassa, āuttaṃ ciṭṭhamāṇassa,... āuttaṃ vatthaṃ, paḍiggahaṃ, kambalaṃ, pāya-punchaṇaṃ genhamāṇassa vā ṇikkhivamāṇassa vā,... vemāyā suhumā kiriyā iriyāvahiyā nāmaṃ kajjati. << A correct monk who “carefully walks and stands... carefully takes up and lays down his cloth, alms-bowl, blanket, broom,... (even) such a monk performs various (vemāyā) subtile actions called īryapathika” [correct action is performed by such a monk]. Īryapathika and īryapatha: Jacobi [Sū]: 364-365. Furthermore: JĀGM (Sū): 155-164 (694-707); Jacobi (Sū): 356-365; Bollée/Soni Ma: 52-58. - See Schubring Do: 195-201 (leśyās and kriyās; the description of kriyās on pp.197-201 is comprehensive, but not absolutely clear).

A special concept is the contamination of monastic rules and lay-rules in the eleven upāsaka-pratimās (uvāsaga-paḍimās, Ācāradaśāḥ 6). Schubring Do: 285-287; Suttāgame II: 928-930; Schubring Ch: 13-15. The contents of the 11 pratimās are not very original.

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