Jaina Education ►eLibrary ►Publication of the Pratikraman Sutra Book in English (JES 941)

Posted: 27.03.2014
Updated on: 30.07.2015

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Federation of Jain Associations in North America
JAINA Education Committee


Pratikraman Sutra Book

Purpose and Contents of the Book:

The one and only goal of Jainism is to attain total liberation of our soul by removing its impurities.  The soul possesses two types of impurities:

  1. Mithyätva - false or illusionary knowledge about its own (soul’s) nature or attributes and about worldly reality (ignorance about our true nature)
  2. Kashäyas or Vices - which are anger, ego, deceit, greed, and other vices

To remove such impurities, from the practical point of view, Jainism has prescribed six essential practices known as Six Ävashyakas which are to be performed daily.  The sutras compiled in this book are used in these six essential practices.

One needs to understand that the performance of these Ävashyak rituals is considered religious act only if we are able to reduce our ignorance and our Kashäyas or Vices after the performance of these rituals.

Six Ävashyakas or Practices:

1

Sämäyika

To remain in Equanimous state for certain duration

2

Chauvisattho or Chaturvimshati-stava

To praise the qualities of Arihant / Tirthankars

3

Vandanä

Respecting Spiritual personalities  and elders

4

Pratikraman

Repentance and Confession of Sins and for the Violations of Vows

5

Käyotsarga

Performing Meditation of certain duration in Yoga Posture

6

Pratyäkhyäna or Pachchakhäna

Live a life by Practicing some or all External and Internal penances

Monks, nuns and devoted Jain lay people (Shrävaks and Shrävikäs) staunchly observe these rituals while others practice them to the best of their ability.

The history of Jain literature indicates that initially these 6 Ävashyakas were performed separately.  However over the period of time the 4th essential “Pratikraman” ritual has been expanded to include other five essential acts.  This way an individual can perform all six Ävashyaka rituals together at one time.

Hence the present Pratikraman ritual which covers all six Ävashyaka or six essential acts, occupies an important place in the Jain tradition, comparable to Sandhyä in the Vedic (Hindu) tradition, Namäj in Islam, Kharavela Avesta in the Zoroastrian faith, and confessional prayer in the Jewish & Christian traditions.

The Pratikraman ritual is done by reciting various sutras and reflecting on their meaning.  These sutras cover all six essential rituals and are compiled in this book.

Sutras are compiled with English Meaning

For daily morning and evening Pratikraman rituals, 51 different sutras are used as per the ritual process.  These Sutras are listed in their original language, either Ardhamagadhi Prakrut or Sanskrut along with their English transliteration, and meaning in simple English. We have also provided some history and general meaning of these Sutras in this book

Pachchakhän or Vows

During the Pratikraman ritual, it is required that we need to take certain vows.  All Sutras related to vows are listed in Hindi and in English in the Pachchakhäna chapter of this book.

Proper Recitation of Sutra (Chhanda)

To receive the maximum spiritual benefit of the Pratikraman ritual, it is required that each sutra be recited in its proper Chhanda (method of recitation).  We have compiled the list of each Sutra and its corresponding Chhanda in the Chhanda chapter of this book.

Mudras or Postures

Also, to receive maximum spiritual benefit, each sutra be recited in a proper physical posture.  We have compiled a list of Postures (with photographs) in which the Sutras need to be recited. See the chapter on Mudra

Muhapatti Padilehan Ritual

During the Pratikraman ritual, Muhapatti is given significant importance in the Shwetambar tradition.  There is a proper process established to inspect the Muhapatti.  Also during the inspection process, one needs to recite and reflect upon virtues of our soul.  All such details with photos are defined in the chapter called Padilehana of the Muhapatti.

 

Availability of the Book

The soft copy of the book (pdf and docx format) is available from the following link of Jain eLibrary Website

The hardcopy book will be available in 6 weeks from now and you will be able to buy using the following link

 

Acknowledgements

The major source of this sutra book is the Pratikraman Sutra book compiled by Late Muni Shri Nirvana-Sagarji and published by Shri Arunodaya Foundation, Shri Mahavir Aradhana Kendra Koba near Ahmedabad India.

The Jaina Education Committee members have edited the meaning of each sutra in simple American English. 

We are very thankful to Pujya Panyäs Shri Ajaysagarji Maharaj, the trustees, and Shri Ketan Shah of Shri Mahavir Aradhana Kendra for continually technically supporting the Jaina Pathashala educational and eLibrary activities.  They have provided all sutras in Unicode Mangal font and their English transliteration.

We are very thankful to the following Jaina Education committee members for compiling, editing, layout, and formatting various aspects of this book.

Hetali Lodaya of Chapel Hill NC
Hiral Shah of Ahmedabad India (now in UK)
Rekha Banker of Raleigh NC
Pradip and Darshana Shah of Chicago IL
Shweta Daftari of Dallas TX
Mukesh Doshi of Chicago IL
Ramesh and Anupamaben Varia of Toronto Canada
Rajesh Shah of Los Angeles CA
Sudhir Shah of Raleigh NC.
Megha Doshi of Ashburn VA
Modification of One Sutra

We needed to modify one sentence “Pradhänam Sarva Dharmänäm” of “Sarva Mangal Mängalyam” stanza of the Jayaviyrai and the Laghu Shanti sutras.

The popular meaning of the sentence is “Jainism is the best religion among all other religions”.  This meaning is not conducive to the basic Jain Principle of Anekantvad and also not conducive to American cultural environment.  This stanza is in Sanskrit language while all other stanzas of Jayaviyrai sutra are in Prakrit Language. 

The Jain history indicates that this stanza was added sometimes after 12th century (1700 years after Lord Mahavir’s Nirvana). Hence it is not a part of the original sutra. 

The following is the modified sutra:

सर्व-मंगल-मांगल्यं, सर्व-कल्याण-कारणम्.

मोक्षार्थम् सर्व जीवानाम्, जैनं जयति शासनम्

Sarva-mangala-mängalyam, sarva-kalyäna-käranam.

Mokshartham sarva jivänäm, jainam jayati shäsanam

Jain philosophy and its practice are auspicious and the cause of all spiritual prosperity. It wishes that all living beings attain liberation.

We apologize if you feel that this action is inappropriate.  However, the main purpose of this book is to teach the Pratikraman sutras to North American Jain youth living in the American cultural environment.

Past History of Changes

In past, in North America we have changed several practices based on American culture:

    1. In 1981 we have decided to change symbol Swastika with OHM in Jain Symbol because the Swastika is tied with Nazi Germany (Hitler) and it is considered hate symbol.
    2. From 1975 onwards, small Jain groups of various cities have installed Jain Tirthankar Murtis in Hindu temple and many of the temple rules have been modified or compromised.  Today in North America, we have more Hindu Jain temples than only Jain temples.
    3. Also most of Jain temples in North America have installed Digambar, Shvetämbar, Shrimad, Dada guru etc. murtis in the temple compromising many rules of various Jain sects.
    4. Almost all centers offer English Pratikraman options to the Jain communities on Samvatsari day.  English Pratikraman is developed by compiling several features of various Jain traditions. Because of English Pratikraman many youths across North America able to do once a year Pratikraman.

To download English Pratikraman book, please click the following link:

To buy English Pratikraman book or any other Jaina Education Books, please click the following link:

We seek forgiveness for any mistake, oversight, understatement, or overstatement in the material presented here.  We request you to use the material objectively and provide positive suggestions so that we can incorporate them into future revisions.

 

Pravin K. Shah
JAINA Education Committee
Federation of Jain Associations in North America
Jain eLibrary in-charge

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Pravin K. Shah
Jain Study Center of North Carolina
919-859-4994