Bhagwaan Mahaveer Evam Jain Darshan ► The Path to Attain Liberation in Jain Philosophy ► Stoppage (Saṁvara) and Annihilation of previously accumulated Karmas (Nirijarā) ► Saṁvara ► Apramāda (carefulness) (अप्रमाद)

Posted: 06.05.2014

1.1.1.3 Apramāda (carefulness) (अप्रमाद)

The absence of enthusiasm from self-welfare and auspicious deeds is non-vigilance. Becoming enthusiastic for self-welfare is vigilance. By practicing great vows an aspirant starts realizing self. A curiosity arises, as what to do, so that sinful karmas do not tie soul and process of karmic bondage be stopped. The answer of this is - vigilance.

Lord explains in details:

जयं चरे जयं चिट्ठे, जयमासे जयं सए।

जयं भुंजंतो भासंतो, पावकम्मं न बंधइ।।

Jayaṁ care jayaṁ citṭhe, jayamāse jayaṁ saye.

jayaṁ bhunjaṅto bhāsaṅto, pāvakammaṁ na baṅdhai...

(One should walk attentively, stand up attentively, sit down attentively, eat attentively, and speak attentively; doing like this he does not bind inauspicious karmas).

(Daśavaikālika, 4/8)

 

The vigilance is necessary for a shramaṇa (श्रमण) or a monk while he practices vows. He must remain awakened every moment. He, must be careful in every action he performs so that an error may not occur, a carelessness may not occur. For this a shramaṇa (श्रमण) or a monk is necessarily required to be vigilant / careful at the moment he acts, walks, speaks, eats etc. In classical language these are called five samities (carefulness). Practicing these five samities an aspirant remains ever vigilant, ever cautious and behaves with right conduct.

"Equanimity, praising, bowing, repentance and renunciation, and giving up attachment for the body are the six (daily) duties, which should be observed. One should carefully observe the three controls, proper control of body, proper control of speech, and proper control of mind. Careful movement, careful speech, careful eating, careful placing and removal of things, careful evacuation of excrement, are the five (5) Samities to be observed."

(See Ācārya Amṛit Chandra: Puruṣārtha Siddhi Upāya, Slokas -201-203).

Īryā-samiti (ईर्या समिति):

The meaning of the īryā is careful movement (in the form of a religious monk) here and there. To go and to come cautiously is īryā samiti. The provision for ashramaṇa (श्रमण) or monk is that he should not walk in darkness and while walking he ought to watch carefully the five hands long land so that any sentient being cannot be killed. This is called īryā samiti. Keeping this point in mind this samiti is said that any violence should not be committed while we walk.

 

Bhāsā-samiti (भाषा समिति):

One ought to speak benevolent, limited and doubtless words hearing to which one should not be hurt. In order to solidify the emotions of non-violence and truth, this vow is practiced.

 

Eṣaṇā-samiti (एषणा समिति):

The Eṣaṇā-samiti means to legitimize one's desires. Man's desire to have delicious diet is quite perceptible. The conventional meaning of Eṣaṇā-samiti is that a shramaṇa (श्रमण) or monk should eat pure vegetarian food without any greed, only one time in a day, through begging. There is thorough description regarding method and legislation of begging. The mistakes should be avoided during begging. The type of food he should collect. From which type of person he should collect the food. The quality of food he should collect. Before going to collect food a shramaṇa (श्रमण) or monk should remember the code of conduct fixed for him. On appearing of any hindrance (Antarāya) he should not collect food. The example that shramaṇa (श्रमण) or monks were conqueror of taste; it can be seen in the life of Lord Mahāvīra.

 

Ādāna-nikṣepa-samiti (आदान निक्षेप समिति):

The taking and putting those things which a shramaṇa (श्रमण) or monk possesses for practicing right knowledge; right conduct is called ādāna nikṣepa samiti. The meaning of ādāna is—taking or collecting. The meaning of nikṣepa is putting something. This samiti is for the cause of carefulness in protection of jīva, the sentient being.

 

Pratisthāpanā-samiti (प्रतिस्थापन समिति):

The excretion of urine and feces should be done at the distant place from the passing way at the solitary and dried place i.e. out of objection and devoid of sentient being.

"Forgiveness, humanity, straight forwardness, truth, contentment, restraint, austerities, charity, non- attachment and chastity are the ten (10) observances to be followed"

(See Ācārya Amṛit Chandra: Puruṣārtha Siddhi Upāya, Slokas -204).

 

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Original Title:

भगवान महावीर एवं जैन दर्शन
Bhagwaan Mahaveer Evam Jain Darshan

English Translation:

Dr. Pradyumna Shah Singh
Department of Religious Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala, India

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