13.09 ►The Outer (Enclosure) Loka

Posted: 27.07.2018
 
The loka outside the mobile zone, and the inter-hell and inter-heaven spaces in the mobile zone, contains only immobile beings of the subtle type. These beings do not require oxygen to live and can exist in any part of the loka . This part of the loka is about 333 cubic rajju and comprises the biggest portion of the loka, which has a total volume of 343 cubic rajju . This means that the vast majority of the...

2.2 Adharmastikaya (Adharma)

Posted: 02.12.2017
 
Adharmastikaya assists jiva and pudgala to assume rest position. Its other characteristics are similar to dharma. It is also a single, indivisible and homogeneous continuum pervading the entire loka but does not extend beyond it (it is also a cause for finiteness of loka). It is beginning less, eternal, devoid of sense qualities and imperceptible to the sense organs and physical instruments. It is immobile and...

Preface

Posted: 23.11.2017
 
Human mind has always been inquisitive. Who am I? Where from I have come and where will I go? Why there is biodiversity? Who has made this world? Why is the world as it is? Who governs this universe? Such questions agitated the human mind and led to the emergence of philosophy and science. The process of enquiry is as old as the human being is and shall continue until humans inhabit this world. Does it mean...

Alokākāśaśreṇi

Posted: 25.07.2016
 
A row of the space-units of the Alokākāśa (supra-cosmic space); the east-west oblong, south-north oblong and upward-downward oblong-rows of space-units are infinite with respect to the substance (i.e., number of entities). alogāgāsaseḍhīo ṇaṃ bhaṃte! davvaṭṭhayāe kiṃ saṃkhejjāo? asaṃkhejjāo? aṇaṃtāo? goyamā! no saṃkhejjāo, no asaṃkhejjāo, aṇaṃtāo. evaṃ...

Is Jain Loka a Multi-region (or Multiverse!) Structure?

Posted: 09.03.2016
By Dr. N.L. Kachhara
Introduction The universe we live in has always been an object of inquiry. All ancient civilizations have pondered over this matter and developed different philosophical understanding. The omniscient Tirthankaras experienced reality in its absolute form and knew the whole loka . Mahavira replied to all questions about loka and some of these are recorded in agama texts. These descriptions are based on direct...

V ►The Universe

Posted: 25.10.2015
 
There have been numerous speculations about the birth or creation of the universe. How did the universe originate? What is the foundation on which it stands? Some sage said that it was standing on the hood of Nāgaśeṣa. Hinduism seems to propound more than one theory about the act of creation. The Sānkhya school of thought postulates that the universe is evolved through the interaction of Prakṛti...

Mathematical method of finding the volume of Loka

Posted: 02.04.2015
 
Acharya Virasena has found out the volume of Loka which has the shape of mṙdaṅga (tabor), in his commentary Dhavalā on Ṣaţkhaṇḍāgama . The whole discussion is given here in toto : "Firstly, let the central portion of the loka which is 14 rajjus in height, having a circular base and a diameter of 1 rajju be considered separately. (See figure 1). Now the method of determine its volume is: [Here there...

ANANTA (INFINITY)

Posted: 01.04.2015
 
There are three main types of ananta (infinity). 1. Parita-Ananta (P. An.) 2. Yukta-Ananta (Y. An.) 3. Ananta-Ananta (An. An.) Each of the above three types are sub-divided into three subtypes: 1. Jaghanya (Maximum) 2. Madhyama (Medium) 3. Utkṛṣṭa (Maximum) Now let us consider these nine types of ananta as described in the Jain philosophy. 1. Jaghanya-Parita Ananta (J. P. An.) By adding one in U. A. A., we...

IV. Concluding Remarks

Posted: 04.03.2015
 
We have tried to churn various theories of universe from pre-historic times up to the modern times, presented in both the fields of philosophy and science. Every reader is free to draw his own conclusion. Nevertheless, the following remarks would assist them to do so: At present, there is not a single scientific theory of Universe, which is unanimously acceptable to all scientists. We may state that even today...

Steady State Theory of Prof. Hoyle

Posted: 22.01.2015
 
As we have already discussed, there are mainly two basic assumptions of the Steady State Universe: 1. The universe is expanding. 2. New 'matter' is created in the universe. The following two facts result from this theory: 3. The universe is beginningless and endless with respect to time. 4. The space of the universe is infinite. The following four facts asserted by Jain view regarding the Loka and Aloka are...