Some Problems in Editing Single Manuscript

Published: 24.02.2011
Updated: 30.07.2015

Some Problems in Editing Single Manuscript

(With Special Reference to Bappabhaṭṭikahā)

A Paper presented in the Seminar on Manuscriptology arranged under the joint auspices of the Institute of Jainology (Ahmedabad) & BORI on 1st to 3rd August 2010

1. Introduction:

One can enter the palace of Jainological Studies through four gateways viz. (I) History of Jaina Tradition; (II) Jaina Philosophy and Religious Conduct; (III) Jaina Literature and (IV) Jaina Art. One cannot embrace the vast horizon of Jaina Studies in one's lifetime. We have to choose our specialized field. As a student of literature from my college days, I preferred to study Jaina Literature in my further studies.

The contribution of Jainas to the whole Indian Literature is really remarkable. The variety of languages seen in Jaina Literature from Lord Mahãvīra (6th century B.C.) up to now, is stunning. Jainas used Ardhamāgadhī, Jain Śaurasenī, Jain Māhārāṣtrī, Sanskrit and Apabhraṁśa to convey Jaina thoughts in ancient and medieval times. Contribution of Jainas to old Gujarātī, old Marāthī and old Kannad is also noteworthy.

While working in a prestigious Prakrit-English Comprehensive Dictionary Project at BORI, Pune, I got the golden opportunity to handle hundreds of Prakrit texts for preparing the dictionary articles. For the practical reasons, Dr. A. M. Ghatage (a world-known Prakritist and Linguist) limited the scope of the dictionary to published printed books. But he always inspired the editorial assistants of the dictionary to go through the unedited Jaina manuscripts which were available in the rich manuscript-collection of BORI.

It will not be inappropriate to provide important information about Bhandarkar Manuscript Collection to this learned audience.

2. Manuscript-Collection of BORI:

For understanding the history and the cultural heritage of a country, the literary treasure enshrined in Manuscripts, forms as precious a means as stone-monuments or other antiquities. Through different stages of civilization, the material used for writing in India was quite varied, being mainly palm-leaf (tāla-patra), birch-bark (bhūrja-patra), stone, metal (like tāmrapaṭa) and lastly, by the 10th century A.D. and onwards, paper.

The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, was founded on 6th July 1917, to commemorate the name and work of Ramakrishana Gopal Bhandarkar. The then British Government, out of confidence in the young band of the founders of the Institute, entrusted in 1918, its rare Collection of Manuscripts (earlier housed in the then Deccan College) to the custody of the Institute for better care and preservation.

The Bombay Government's entire collection of nearly 20,000 Manuscripts, which was transferred to the Institute, was earlier acquired through strenuous tours and wanderings by great Indologists and Professors like George Bühler, R. G. Bhandarkar, P. Peterson, F. Kielhorn, V. S. Ghate and A. V. Kathavate. About 10,000 new Manuscripts have been added to this original stock later through fresh acquisitions by the Institute's workers, and this activity continues to date enriching the total collection.

The Institute feels proud of possessing some old and unique mss. on paper, palm-leaf and birch-bark.

There are 20 volumes of descriptive catalogue in BORI. Volume 17,18 and 19 contains mss. concerned to Jaina Literature and Philosophy. These catalogues are edited by the eminent Jaina scholar H. R. Kapdiya.

Some unique manuscripts from the collection are noted down by (Late)Prof. Laddu and Gokhaley in the Annals of BORI (1996). Among them the following Jaina mss. are noteworthy.

  1. Oldest ms. in the collection:

उपमितिभवप्रंचकथा 7/1880-81 (Palm-leaf ms.), dated Saṁvat 962, i.e. 906 A.D.

  1. mss. having fine calligraphy:
    • योगशास्त्रोद्धारश्लोकाः 1364/1884-87, dated Saṁvat 1469, i.e. 1413 A.D.; specimen of excellent Jaina calligraphy.
    • दशवैकालिकसूत्रावचूरी 711/1892-95, 713/1892-95, 1169/1887-91; in beautiful and small hand-writing.
  2. Other old Palm-leaf mss:
    • भगवतीसूत्रवृत्ति 10/1881-82, dated Saṁvat 1128, i.e. 1072 A.D.
    • विशेषावश्यकभाष्यटीका 57/1880-81, dated Saṁvat 1138, i.e. 1082 A.D.
    • निशीथसूत्रचूर्णि 36/1880-81, 36 a/1880-81, dated Saṁvat 1145 and 1146, i.e. 1089 and 1090 A.D. respectively.

Many illustrative mss. of this collection are noteworthy, specially of Kalpasūtra.

Muni Puṇyavijayaji was one of the founder members of BORI. He played an important role in enriching the manuscript collection of BORI.

3. The Manuscripts of Bappabhaṭṭikahā:

In H. D. Velankar's catalogue of manuscripts, viz. Jinaratnakośa (published by BORI), I found a reference of 'Bappabhaṭṭikahā', a small Prakrit text which was available in Bhandarkar's manuscript collection. Dr. Ghatage helped me a lot to search other manuscripts in various manuscript-collections through his sources. At the end of his quest, he told me to concentrate on the single manuscript.

Twenty five years ago, the word 'manuscriptology' was not so much in vogue as it is now. Foreign and Indian academicians had edited hundreds of Jaina texts in 19th and 20th century; but the methodological science of editing the manuscript is the brainchild of this decade especially is India.

With this prelude, I humbly say that I have not attended seminars or formal courses on manuscriptology. One can do better if one attends, but for editing an old Jain manuscript, the first and foremost thing is that a person should have the deep knowledge or insight in Prakrit and Sanskrit. Digitization of manuscripts, exhibiting the manuscripts, knowing various scripts, techniques of manuscript-preservation and conservation, technical knowledge about the palm-leaf, birch-leaf, paper, copper plates etc., the history of paper, varieties of papers and stylus - all these things are of course important. Still they possess only peripheral value; it is not the crux of the matter.

If one really wants to contribute Jaina studies, it is his solemn duty to edit at least few Jaina texts which are not yet published.

When I found the single manuscript of 'Bappabhaṭṭikahā' my quest started. The basic information of the text is likewise:

  • Description of the Manuscript:

The single manuscript of 'Bappabhaṭṭikahā' is found in manuscript collection at BORI, Pune. The catalogue no.165/1872-73. Nine folios are there having the size 25.7 cm X 11.2 cm. Each folio contains 14 lines and each line contains 35 letters. Thin deshi paper is used. Script is Devanagari and letters are quite legible. Each page is decorated with black and red border. Each folio contains the page number at lower left side. Few corrections and notes are written in yellow ink. In itself the manuscript is complete but the name of the author is not written. Even the name of the scribe is not mentioned. The date of the ms. is also not written but considering the paper, style of letters etc. we can say that the date of this manuscript is approximately 15th or 16th century. There are 230 verses. 215 gāthās are in Jaina Māhārāṣtrī. 10 ślokas are in Sanskrit. Ślokas are in Anuṣṭubha, Vasantatilakā and Samajāti metre. 5 gāthās are found in Apabhraṁśa Doha metre.

I started to edit this text in 1990. It was actually just beginning of my career in Prakrit. I put the text in proper Devanagari script and tried to analyze and translate the text.

Now in 2010, when I went through the text and translation I felt that during the inbetween time, my perception and understanding have changed tremendously. I can understand and appreciate the text in better manner. I think it is necessary for a researcher to review his own writings, particularly edited manuscripts time to time. I wish to highlight this point in this seminar on manuscriptology.

  • Importance of this manuscript:

Bappabhaṭṭi is a historic legendary figure in Jain tradition. Prabhācandra aptly says:


ब्रह्मचरी गजवरो राजपूजित इत्यपि॥ [1]

Eminent academicians like (Dr.)S. K. Ayyangar, A. N. Upadhye, V. Krishnnammacarya, H. R. Kapdiya, S. P. Pandit, N. B. Utagikar, N. G. Suru, H. C. Bhayani and many others have discussed a lot about the date, personality and biography of Bappabhṭi. The friendly relationship between Vākpatirāja (author of Gauḍavaho) and Bappabhaṭṭi is discussed at length by these scholars. The account of defeating the Bauddha Bhikṣu Vardhanakuñjara in Vādasabhā with the help of Vākpatirāja, is quite interesting in the narratives of Bappabhaṭṭi. With the help of these scholarly discussions, we can say in short that Bappabhaṭṭi lived during the later half of the 8th century and in the first half of the 9th century. He was from Modherakapura (mod. Modherā in Gujarat). This Śvetāmbara Ācārya continued the lineage of Jaina monks which was famous as Modheragaccha. Due to Bappabhaṭṭi's various qualities as mentioned above, he influenced the king Āma of Kānyakubja and king Yaśovarmā or Yaśodharmā of Lakṣaṇāvati in Gauḍa region. Both the kings accepted Jaina faith and the spread of Jainism was quite remarkable in their regions. During 11th and 12th century Bappabhaṭṭisūri become a legendary figure. From 13th century onwards Bappabhaṭṭi got honorable position in the Jaina Prabandha Literature written in Sanskrit. Here we may mention Prabhācandra, Rājaśekhara, Jinaprabha, Pradyumna, Samayasundara, Ravivardhana and so on. In these Prabandhas, the authors added many myths and miraculous incidents created by their imagination while picturing the life-history of Bappabhaṭṭi.

Many eminent scholars who endeavored in Jain studies had noted ample literary sources about Bappabhaṭṭi, but nobody has mentioned this small biography in manuscript form; not even in their notes. So I felt that it is very important to throw a light on this small manuscript - the shortest biography among the available ones, noting down the important incidents in Bappabhaṭṭi's life.

Bappabhaṭṭisūrī, king Āma and king Dharm.a are the central characters in this narrative. The love-hate-love relationship of Āma with Bappabhaṭṭi increases curiosity in the reader. The Śvetāmbara - Digambara controversy is discussed in gāthās 210 up to 228. This issue is a separate subject of a research paper.

4. Some Examples of Editing Single Manuscript:

According to the ideal norms, it is always desired to prepare a critical edition of a text, with the help of three or at least two manuscripts. The critical edition of Mahābhārata, prepared by BORI is so much regarded because it was prepared with the help of 14 manuscripts which were collected from the different parts of our country. But in all cases, it is not possible to get many mss.

The oldest Jaina Śaurasenī text Ṣaṭkhaṇḍāgama was found in Mūḍabidrī, Karnāṭaka, with its extensive commentary 'Dhavalā' in 1939. The script was old Kannada and was written on palm-leaves. The bare text of Ṣaṭkhaṇḍāgama was published in 1965, with the help of palm-leaf ms. Later on, the copies of Ṣaṭkhaṇḍāgama were found in Sagar, Amaravati, Phaltan etc. which were copied down from the one and only palm-leaf ms.

Same is the case of Vasudevahiṁdī: Majjhima Khaṇḍa (1) edited by Dr. Bhayani and Nagin Shah. It is based on five mss. But in the introduction it is noted that "Of the above described mss., 'खं' ms. is a palm-leaf ms. It is fairly old and it is comparatively better than all other mss. 'खं' is the original and the other four mss. were possibly successively copied from 'खं'. The original text is too much corrupt and we do not construe the text with the help of other copies.”[2] Thus it was practically edited with single ms.

In the introduction of Saṁkhitta-taraṅgavai-kahā, Dr. Bhayani has noted down that though he edited the text with three mss., due to corrupt texts, the editor faced a lot of difficulties. With his scholarly endeavor he had suggested better readings but at many places we see the brackets, questions marks and dotted lines in the published text. [3] Thus, while editing a text, there is not a prescribed formula about the number of mss. We can edit the text with a single ms. provided it is legible and having few corruptions.

5. Some Problems and Observations While Editing:

  1. The task of editing Bappabhaṭṭikahā with a single manuscript was comparatively an easy task. The paper ms. is comparatively modern i.e. of 15th of 16th century A.D. The letters are big and legible. Still here, I indicate some orthographical problems and special features of the first folio.
    • The ms. starts with a typical sign indicating ॐ or अर्हम्.
    • छ and च्छ are not differentiated (तल्लिच्छो, gā. 1).
    • , त्त, तु and त्तु are written in a peculiar style (gā. 1; 6).
    • त्थ is written in a curious way (gā. 5; 6; 9).
    • In place of ओ, the scribe writers 'उ' with a typical sign (ga. 10).
    • When the scribe wants to rub the letter he makes the ink to fade (gā. 5; gā 9).
    • The style of writing 'ऊ' कार is very special (gā. 4).
    • The conjunct consonants ट्ठ and द्ध are many times baffling (gā. 7).
    • The style of writing '' is also peculiar at some places (gā. 8).
    • The forgotten letters are added in the margin (gā. 6).

For understanding the meaning of the text, one should get acquainted with the peculiar style of a scribe. The above-mentioned examples are given as a sample.

  1. The word बप्पभट्टि is written in many ways, viz. बप्पभट्टी, बप्पहट्टी, बप्पभत्ति etc.
  2. Two gāthās of this ms. are found in Vajjālagga.
    • BaBhaKa reads:

      दो पुरीसे धरउ धरा, अहवा दोहिं पि धारिया धरणी।

      उवयारे जस्स मई, उवयरीअं जो न पम्हुसइ ॥ gā 2.

    • While Vajjālagga reads:

      बे पुरिसा धरइ धरा, अहवा दोहिं पि धारीया धरणी।

      उवयारे जस्स मई, उवयरियं जो न पम्हुस इ॥

    • BaBhaKa. reads उक्तं च -

    मा होह सुयग्गाही, जं न होइ किल दिट्ठं।

    पच्चक्खे वि य दिट्ठे, जुत्ताजुत्तं वियारिज्जा॥ gā. 197.

    • While Vajjalagga reads -

    मा होसु सुयग्गाही, मा पत्तीय जं न दिट्ठ पच्चक्खं।

    पच्चक्खे वि य दिट्ठे, जुत्ताजुत्तं वियारेह॥ gā.97*7 p. 225 (Pat.).

The word 'उक्तं च' is very indicative. If the poet had actually taken the verse from Vajjālagga, this text is certainly written after 14th century. Thus the cross-references in the ms. help in date-fixation.

One more gāthā is quoted from Gathāsaptaśatī. [4] Of course with the Jaina Māhārāṣtrī renderings [5] of the famous Māhārāṣtrī text of third century. It indicates the acquaintance of Jainas with non-Jaina works. Though the gāthā is quoted from Gathāsaptaśatī, the poet tells that it is समस्यापूर्ति done by Bappabhaṭṭi.

  1. In the sixth gāthā of the ms., it is mentioned that in the गुर्जरदेश, there is a city called मोढेर and the person named ब्रह्मशक्ति constructed a temple of Vīra-jina, probably of Lord Mahāvīra. It will be an interesting search if we can locate the temple at modern मोढेर.
  2. Gāthā 12 mentions the miraculous yogic powers of Bappabhaṭṭi. I was unable to grasp the meaning when I read it in 1990. The text reads:

नहमासिआईपई (?) संजाया बप्पभट्ठिणो सिद्धिं (gā. 12)

  1. The letter 'प' is faded, so by dropping it, the text becomes 'नहमसिआईई'. The Sanskrit rendering can be 'नभमसिआदीनि' which means, 'आकाशगमन', 'अंजनसिद्धि' and also other miraculous lores.
  2. In Gāthā 11, it is mentioned that 'पुरिसाणं विज्ज च्चिय अच्चोरहणं हु मंडणयं'. This is an example of metathesis with syllable-dropping. It should be - च्चोर - हरणं - means 'which a thief cannot steal away.'
  3. Gāthā 32 mentions that once king Āma was in deep love with 'डुंबी'. First I thought that it is a name of a city. But when I consider it as a Deśya word, it was clear that this is a reference of a low-caste woman (compare-Marathi- डोंब)
  4. Now we proceed with the gāthās, which were really like hard nuts to crack:

देसु पिआरउ अप्पणो, काउरिसह पडिहाइ।

साहह जह वणि अच्छमइ, पिअरि विढत्तउं नाइ॥ gā. 58.

The first half of the first line of this Apabhraṁśa gāthā is quite similar to old Hindi which means 'अपना देश प्यारा'. But the second line is just an unsolved puzzle for me. I had discussed a lot to (late) Dr. Ghatage but we could not find the exact meaning. This is the limitation of single-text-editing.

The Skt. śloka runs:

कर्मारिकाननं देहे शुक्लध्यानानलेन ते।

जिनाख्या ज्या श्रु चित्रं चित्रा चेविपल्लवं॥ gā. 202

One can derive the meaning from the first line, but the second one is still a puzzle for me.

When we overcome the problems in reading the manuscript and put it into contemporary devanāgarī version, the next step is of course word by word translation with proper 'अन्वय'. The third step is to examine the text from language point of view and grammar. Evaluating the text as a literary piece is naturally the further step. And at the end we can highlight the historical, social and cultural importance of the text, if the text deserves from this view point.

Bappabhaṭṭikahā, although a small treatise is so important that stepwise study of it is quite worth. But considering the limitations of this research paper, it is impossible to take note of all these points. Yet I cannot resist temptation to say that the text of Bappabhaṭṭikahā is flooded with Rasas, Bhāvas, Alaṁkāras and that too without leaving the fragrance of original characteristics of Prakrit language. Especially the profuse use of Deśya words and Dhātvādeśas mentioned in Hem. Grammar attracts one's attention. I would like to present some examples:

वज्जर and साह are Dhātvādeśas for कथ्; विढत्त for प्राप्, मेल्ल for मुञ्च्, फिट्ट for भ्रंश्, पम्हुस for वि+स्मृ; हिट्ठओ for अथस्तात् (Mārvādi - हेठे); मुक्कल - Guj. - मोकल्युं, Mar. - मोकळे; कड्ढ from Skt. कर्ष - Mar. काढणे; हक्कार - to call loudly, Mar.- हाकारणे; ढिल्ल - Mar. - ढिला, Hindi - ढीलाढाला - probably short form of शिथिल < सिढिल; वल्ल, कल्ल, धुण, टहरिय, वंवइय, पिट्ट are also peculiar deśya words.

'बइल्ल-जण-संकुले गामे' is a phrase used for describing foolish and dull people of a particular village. The word बप्प for तात, जनक or पिता was quite in vogue. This word is used in the name बप्पभट्टि, वाक्पतिराज is also बप्पइराअ in Prakrit.

The poet of Bappabhaṭṭikahā is very much expert in conveying his thought by using colloquial language and images.

अह गिहिखालजलं किं रुच्चइ रायहंसस्स?

Does a royal swan like the water flowing from the gutter of a house?

बहुअरिणं न हुरिणं होइ.

When there is heavy burden of debt, at a stage, one feels that he is burdenless. i.e. he declares bankruptcy.

Gāthā No. 144, 147 and 148 are the best examples of समस्यापूर्ति.

The vocabulary of Bappabhaṭṭikahā, contributed a lot to the Prakrit-English Comprehensive Dictionary of BORI. This point is enough to underline the importance of this Jaina Māhārāṣtrī text.

6. Manuscriptology and Scholars of Prakrit and Jainism in the Last Century:

In the last century there is a glittering galaxy of Indian scholars in the field of Prakrit and Jainism. Some of them came from Śramanic tradition, others from Pandit tradition and some of them are purely academicians. They edited literally hundreds of Jaina Prakrit and Sanskrit texts. At that time a methodological science of manuscripts was not developed. In the last two decades young scholars of Indology are attending seminars and conferences dedicated to Manuscriptology. The technical know-how of manuscripts is no doubt important but it is our duty to apply the methodology for editing unpublished mss. and that too with scholarly introduction, variant readings,translations and critical notes like our Pūrvasūris.

7. A Glimpse of Unedited Manuscripts:

Here I am presenting a small list of unedited and unpublished manuscripts. A Jaina scholar having specialization in Jaina literature would like to go through the list and edit few books of his interest in his life-time.

It is possible that some scholars might have edited some books mentioned in the following list. It is requested to the editors to send the copy of the book to the library of BORI.

  1. Caritas
    • पाश्वनाथचरित of विनयचन्द्रसूरी, Skt., composed before Saṁvat 1460, Graṁthāgra 4709, Two mss. available at हेमचन्द्राचार्य जैन ज्ञानमंदिर, पाटण.
    • पार्श्वनाथपुराण of चन्द्रकीर्ति, Skt., Saṁvat 1654, Graṁthāgra 2710, Single ms. at पन्नालाल मरस्वती भवन, भुलेश्वर, मुंबई.
    • यशोधरचरित of वासवसेन, for details, see Velankar catalogue.
  2. Poetics (for details see Velankar catalogue):
    • काव्यकल्पलतावृत्ति of शुभविजय(4 mss. are noted)
    • काव्यकलाप of अमरचन्द्रसूरी (6 or 7 mss. are noted)
    • Commentaries of चारित्रवर्धनगणि on कुमारसंभव, मेघदूत, नैषध and रघुवंश.
  3. Grammar
    • पंचग्रन्थी/शब्दलक्ष्म/बुद्धिसागर-व्याकरण of बुद्धिसागरसूरी, Saṁvat 1080, palm-leaf ms. at Jesalmir, several others are also noted in Jinaratnakośa.
    • बालशिक्षा व्याकरण of संग्रामसिंह, Saṁvat 1336, a book written for better understanding of कातन्त्र-व्याकरण. Six mss. are noted.
  4. Dramas

Hastimalla's two dramas named 'भरतराज' and 'मेघेश्वर-राज' are mentioned in 'A Catalogus Catalogorum' by T. Aufrecht, Vol.1, published in Leipzig. The details of mss. are not noted.

  1. Astrology
    • जन्मसमुद्र/जन्माम्बोधि of नरचन्द्र उपाध्याय, Saṁvat 1323, four mss. are mentioned.
    • आयनाणतिलय of भट्ट वोसरि, Saṁvat 1441, an astrological Prakrit work divided into 25 chapters; four mss. are noted.
  2. Music

संगीत-मण्डन of कवि मण्डन, 15th century A.D. The name of this mss. is included in the list of mss. in the Vādi Pāśvanātha Pustaka Bhandar at Zaveri Wada, Patan.

  1. Ayurveda

जगत्-सुन्दरी-प्रयोगमाला of यशःकीर्ति is a Prakrit text dedicated to आयुर्वेद. The poet has used the prose Sanskrit and contemporary Hindi verses in-between. The description of the diseases like ज्वर, प्रमेह, मूत्रकृच्छ्र, अतिसार, ग्रहणी, पाण्डु, रक्तपित्त etc. is found.

Various Yantras and Mantras throw light on its ritualistic nature. Pandita Ambalal Shah says: “This book is published by S. K. Kotecha at Dhuliya but it contains serious mistakes.” [6 ]H. D. Velankar says: “There are two mss. of the first 34 chapters, one at Kekāḍī and another at Nasirabad.”

Concerned persons may take note of this.

8. Sanskrit Verse about Manuscript-preservation:

In Sanskrit, the words used for a book are 'ग्रन्थ' or 'पुस्तक'. The Prakrit word for 'पुस्तक' is 'पोस्थय, from which the word 'पोथी' is derived. It is very interesting to note that now-a-days we used the word 'पोथी' for a manuscript or even a printed book having the shape of 'पोथी'. When the art of printing was not prevalent, the word 'पुस्तक' was used in the sense of a manuscript also.

“How a manuscript is to be taken care of by a bibliophile”, can be best illustrated by the following poetic verse from a copyist appearing at the end of some Sanskrit manuscript:

संभूष्यं सदपत्यवत्, परकरात् रक्ष्यं च सुक्षेत्रवत्,

संशोध्यं व्रणिताङ्गवत्, प्रतिदिनं वीक्ष्यं च सन्मित्रवत्।

बध्यं वध्यवदश्लथं दृढगुणैः, स्मर्यं हरेर्नामवत्,

नैवं सीदति पुस्तकं खलु कदाप्येतद् गुरूणां वचः॥

It is to be decked like one's beloved child; to be guarded from another's hand like one's virtuous wife; to be treated like an injured limb of one's body; to be looked up every day like a good friend; to be tied up strongly like a prisoner with strong threads; and to be always thought of like the Lord's name; if one does thus, his manuscript does not come to grief (Translation: V. Raghavan[ 7])

How beautifully our wise forefathers had given us the norms of manuscript preservation and conservation!

9. List of Reference Books:

  • A Brief Survey of Jaina Prakrit and Sanskrit Literature, Dr. Nalini Joshi, Sanmati-Teerth Prakashan, June 2009.
  • Annals of the BORI, 1996, Ed. Dr. Dandekar, Dr. Laddu, BORI Press, 1997.
  • Bappabhaṭṭi and his Tārāgaṇa, Saṁbodhi Vol. 3, A. N. Upadhye, L. D. I. I, Ahmedabad, 1974-75.
  • Gāthāsaptaśatī, Hāla Sātavāhana, Ed. Rādhāgovinda Basak, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta - 9, 1971.
  • जैन साहित्य का बृहद् इतिहास, भाग ५, पं. अंबालाल, शाह पार्श्वनाथे विद्याश्रम शोध संस्थान, वाराणसी १९६९.
  • 6) जपून ठेवा अपुला ठेवा, डॉ. श्री. . बापट, राष्ट्रीय पाण्डुलिपी मिशन, BORI, पुणे, २००५.
  • Jinaratnakośa, H. D. Velankar, BORI, Poona, 1944.
  • Manuscriptology: An entrance, S. Jagannath, Parimal Publications, Delhi, 2007.
  • प्रभावकचरित, प्रभाचन्द्र, सिंघी जैन ज्ञानपीठ, सं. जिनविजय, अहमदाबाद, १९४०.
  • संखित्त-तरंगवई-कहा, एच्. सी. भायाणी, लालभाई दलपतभाई विद्यामंदिर, अह्मदबाद्, १९७९.
  • Siddha-Hema-Śabdānuśasana, Hemacandra, 8th Adhyāya, Dr.P.L.Vaidya, BORI, Poona, 1958.
  • Vajjalagga, M.V.Patwardhan, Prakrit Text Society, Ahmedabad, 1969.
  • विसुदेवहिंडी, मज्झिमखंड(I), धर्मसेनगणी, भायाणी-शाह, एल. डी. आय्. आय्., अहमदाबाद, १९८७.


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  1. A Brief Survey of Jaina Prakrit and Sanskrit Literature
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