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Who is a Jain Shravak: 1.3 Representative Scripture of Laymen

Published: 03.02.2020

The Meaning of Daam-Yugal (Two Garlands)

Utpal came closer to Vardhman Mahavira and said, 'Vardhman! Last night did you see ten dreams?!

Mahavira - 'Yes, I saw ten dreams!

Utpal - 'Oh Bhagawan! You are a person of great wisdom. Still I would like the opportunity to analyse these dreams and test the knowledge that I possess with you.!

Utpal correctly explained the meaning of nine of the ten dreams but failed to explain one dream about 'daam-yugal' (two garlands).

Utpal - 'Bhagawan! I am unable to analyse the meaning of this dream. Could you please explain?!

Mahavira - 'Utpal! It means I will propound two types of religion: agaar-dharm and anagaar-dharm. Agaar dharm is the religion for layman where the word 'agaar! stands for house. Practising spirituality at home is agaar dharm. The spiritual practise of the monks who have abandoned house is anagaar dharm.!

Utpal - 'Okay! My Bhagawan!!

It might make you wonder why Utpal couldn't explain the fourth dream. But then how could Utpal have known Mahavira's new approach? It was unprecedented and completely new. Therefore, Bhagawan Mahavira satisfied the curiosity of Utpal. The entire incident is expressed in the following verses:

uname chautha mahaasvapna, do maalaaon ka darshan tha,
jo vishista anagaar agaar-dharm ka sahi nidarshan tha.

svapna pravakta Utpal nahi samajh paaya usaki bhaasha,
jigyaasa par kar karuna di svayam veer ne paribhaasha.
jo agaar ghar chod bane, anagaar dharm ke adhikaari,
shesh agaari ghar-baari, ke liye agaar dharm bhaari.

The interpretation of the ten dreams seen by Bhagawan Mahavira is as follows:

    1. Defeating Tal Pisach demon - Destruction of mohaniya karma.
    2. A large male Cuckoo bird with white feathers- Progressing to the stage of Shukla dhyan.
    3. A male Cuckoo bird with multi-coloured feathers -Formulating the knowledge in the form of twelve angas.
    4. Two garlands of gems - Propounding two types of religion- agaar-dharm and anagaar-dharm.
    5. A herd of white cows and calves - Establishing the four-fold religious order.
    6. A pool with bloomed lotuses - Service by four kinds of deities.
    7. Swimming an ocean with his bare hands - He will surpass the worldly ocean of rebirth.
    8. The radiant sun - Attainment of keval gyaan.
    9. Encircling the mountain Maanushottar with his intestine -Dignity will spread around the world.
    10. Ascending the highest peak of Mount Meru - Giving the comprehensive sermon of spirituality.

Agaar Dharm: A New Concept

Let's analyse historically why Utpal couldn't understand the meaning of the fourth dream. Utpal was a follower of Bhagawan Parshwanatha.

During his period, there was no classification of dharm into agaar and anagaar. There was only chaturyaam dharm. Both monks and commoners would accept the same. A monk would say chaujjam dhammam padivajjahi meaning I am accepting the chaturyaam dharm and a layman would also say, 'Bhagawan! I have heard it, I like it and I accept the chaturyaam dharm.'

During the era of Bhagawan Mahavira while accepting the religion shravaks would ask for twelve vows. We find that Anand shravak said 'Bhagawan! I have heard your discourse. I have faith and a keen interest in it. 'Panchanuvayam sattsikhavayam dvaalsaviham - I accept the code of conduct of religion in the form of twelve vows which includes five anuvrats and seven shikshaavrats'.

History is witness to the fact that Bhagawan Mahavira had developed chedopasthaapaniya chaaritra. During the age of the twenty-two Tirthankars there was only saamaayik charitra. Chedopasthaapaniya chaaritra was present only in the period of the first and the last Tirthankars. Chedopasthaapaniya charitra means: chheden vibhaagen upasthaapaniyam - Which is accepted in detail with classification.

Five mahavrats, five samitis and three guptis are thirteen codes of conduct made for monks and nuns. In adoration of Bhagawan Mahavira, Acharya Pujyapada has written:

trayodashatayo dharmo na dishto pariah

Meaning that the religion Mahavira had shown in the form of thirteen vows was not propounded by others.

A monk observes five mahavratas, five samitis and three guptis. One of the meanings of 'Terapanth' is therefore, 'He who observes these thirteen vows is a Terapanthi monk.'

Garlands of Gems

Bhagawan Mahavira formulated the two sets of code of conduct of religion (agaar-anagaar dharam). Many a times this question was raised amongst Terapanth that terapanthis consider laymen to be unworthy (kupaatra) as they cannot practise the religion in its completeness. In such times, our ancient Acharyas and scholar monks would say, as Bhikshu Swami expressed that:

saadh nai shravak ratna ri maala, ek moti dooji naanhi re,
gun gunthya chyaarun tirath na, avirat rah gayi kaani re.

Acharya Bhikshu has clearly stated, 'The monks as well as laymen are garlands of gems. The difference is that one garland is smaller than the other. Even small stones are useful in rings for the finger. Though there is a difference in size, the core element is the same i.e. both are gems. While saying,

gun gunthya chyaarun tirath na, avirat rah gayi kaani re

It means that in this concept the qualities of four tirths are stringed together but avrat (non-renunciation) is excluded. Avrat is like a bowl of poison, while vrat indicates garlands of gems.

Context Multiplies the Value

The explanation of agaar dharm is the foundation of Shravak Sambodh and has been explained very beautifully. It would have been difficult to imagine the value of dreams if there was no understanding of the dream of two garlands and the advocating of two sets of religious code of conduct. This dream multiplies the value of other dreams because it was an indication of an innovative concept. The context multiplies the significance. In the absence of the relevant context, the value decreases.

One day, a Jain shravak, who was a jeweller by profession, put a gem in front of me and asked, 'What is this? Please have a look.' He then said 'Its cost is twenty lakh rupees. If I get it embedded into a necklace its value will become one crore rupees.!

Where did this value come from? The gem got converted into a necklace and its value got increased. The value of the words when expressed in the right context gets multiplied. On the other hand, if there is no relevant context, the value diminishes.

Sources

Title:  Who is a Jain Shravak?
Author: 

Acharya MahaPragya

Translator: 

Sadhvi Vishrut Vibha

Publisher:  Adarsh Sahitya Vibhag, JVB
Edition: 
2019
Digital Publishing: 
Amit Kumar Jain

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Acharya
  2. Acharya Bhikshu
  3. Acharya Pujyapada
  4. Acharyas
  5. Anand
  6. Angas
  7. Anuvrats
  8. Bhikshu
  9. Bhikshu Swami
  10. Charitra
  11. Crore
  12. Darshan
  13. Dharm
  14. Dhyan
  15. Five Samitis
  16. Gun
  17. Guptis
  18. Karma
  19. Karuna
  20. Lakh
  21. Mahavira
  22. Mahavratas
  23. Mahavrats
  24. Meru
  25. Mohaniya
  26. Mohaniya Karma
  27. Mount Meru
  28. Parshwanatha
  29. Pujyapada
  30. Samitis
  31. Shravak
  32. Shravaks
  33. Shukla
  34. Swami
  35. Terapanth
  36. Terapanthi
  37. Terapanthis
  38. Tirthankars
  39. Veer
  40. vrat
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