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Balatkara Gana

Published: 14.07.2011
Updated: 17.12.2012

Balatkara Gana

Balatkara Gana is an ancient Jain monastic order, founded in 1071 CE. It is a section of the Mula Sangh and is often termed Balatkara Gana Sarasvat.i Gaccha.

Until the beginning of the 20th century Balatkara Gana was present in a number of places in India but all of its seats in North India became vacant in early 20th century. Balatkara Gana only survives at Humcha (or Humbaj) in Karnataka, which is its ancient seat and his headed by the Bhattaraka of Humcha.

The Bhattaraka seat at Humcha was founded in the 8th century CE, during the reign of Jinadatta Rai, founder of the ruling dynasty of Santar. In 1048 CE, the Mahamandaleshwara Chandarayarus made a donation to a Bhattaraka of Balagara-gana at Balligame near Banavasi in present-day Karnataka. Thus, the Bhattaraka seat at Humcha may be one of the oldest of its kind. Balatkara Gana arrived in North India in the 13th century as attested by inscriptions at Un (Vikram 1218), Ahar (Vikram 1228) and Hoshangabad (Vikram 1271).

There exists a chronology (Pattavali) of the north Indian tradition the early part of which was composed during the time of Bhataraka Prabhachandra II. Early part of the chronology is supported by a 13th century inscription associated with the building of the Kirti Stambh of Chittore. The disciples of Bhattaraka Prabhachandra founded several branches and sub-branches in several regions of India.


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  1. Bhattaraka
  2. Bhattaraka of Humcha
  3. Gaccha
  4. Humbaj
  5. Humcha
  6. Karnataka
  7. Mula Sangh
  8. Sangh
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