Early Jaina Iconography (Part 4)

Published: 08.12.2011
Updated: 30.07.2015

This essay was published in Berliner Indologische Studien No. 19. 2010, pp. 123-169. To make this online reissue citeable, the page numbers are added to the text (see squared brackets).


Early Jaina Iconography - An Overview (Part 4)


13. Udayagiri-Khandagiri

The Udayagiri-Khandagiri caves in Orissa have been excavated by the Chedi ruler Khāravela in the "thirteenth year" of his reign. The exact date (1st century B.C.?, Sahu Kh: 53) is not known, but Khāravela was a Jaina, and he excavated the caves for Jaina monks (Mitra Ud: 3-5). That the caves were meant for Jaina monks follows clearly from the Khāravela inscription in Udayagiri Cave 14 (Mitra Ud: 3; Sahu Kh: 314-346). The caves are adorned with rock-cut friezes; the sculptures have "hardly anything that savours of the archaic traits of Bharhut", Mitra Ud: 14. There are vivid scenes side by side with traditional symbols (Mitra Ud: passim). The art is just 'popular' (early rock-cut sculptures follow always this uncertain line, infra); Jainism is conspicuous by its absence.

The frequently used expression "popular" requires some explanation. There is hardly any definition, but descriptions accentuate the existence of such a region. J.C. Harle writes: "Many of the sculptural themes of early Indian art are found at Pitalkhora [Deccan]: the goddess Śrī, elephants dousing her with their trunks, yakṣas with fin-like ears, juxtaposed animal figures, mithunas and flying figures, some with wings (kinnaras), and others in the beautiful and distinctive pose, legs flexed trailing behind the body, which henceforth indicates that a figure is flying" (Harle Pe: 51-52).

What is true of art is equally true of religious practice. E. Waldschmidt accentuates tree sanctuaries: „Jedes Dorf hatte seinen heiligen Feigenbaum." Hindu orthodoxy (Veda etc.) is not the religion of ancient India. There were many currents and undercurrents. J.C. Harle quotes A.K. Coomaraswamy 1927, "the vocabulary [of symbols] was equally available to all sects, Brāhmans, Buddhists and Jains, each employing them in senses of their own" (Harle Pe: 494a, n. 57). The three "great religions" were infiltrated by the popular religion, and the popular religion for its part was not uniform. [157|158]

'Popular' art and 'popular' religious practice (the expression "non-sectarian" would be an alternative) are not homogeneous: The world of trees and flowers (vegetation cults) is not the world of Yakṣas, the world of spirits is not the world of sacred animals (cows, serpents, monkeys), the world of sacred trees and lotuses is not the world of the Buddhist dharma (Waldschmidt Bu: 59-65); the Nāgas are no human beings, but there is contact between both categories. Moreover: "Glimpses of foreign elements are occasionally found in the art of Mathurā" (Sharma Ma: 38). Foreign elements are for example the mixed beings ('orientalische Mischwesen'), see LdA 2: 88 and 122-123.

Yakṣa worship is perhaps the most weighty subject in the loose ensemble of popular art (Misra Ya; Gonda In: 323-325). "… the emergence of these demi-gods [the Yakṣas] is shrouded in mystery, but the development of their worship including cult, pantheon, temples, images, high-priests, votaries, modes of worship and iconography are not only vivid but comprehensible also" (Misra Ya: 1). "The natural abodes of the Yakṣas were situated on 'trees, rivers, hills and charming groves' or in 'waterless and savage woods full of tigers and apes'" (Misra Ya: 93). Misra describes the abodes of Yakṣas and Yakṣīs on pp. 93-97: "It is quite probable that just as they inhabited trees, the Yakṣas may have dwelt in bushes, bowers and the like" (Misra Ya: 96). "They [the Yakṣas] had their sport in the lakes and were born in water" (Misra Ya: 97). "The protective function of Yakṣas is corroborated by the situation of their shrines on the outskirts of the cities which were centres of folk entertainment and assembly" (Misra Ya: 47). In fact " … Yakṣa Sāta and his son Sātagiri are represented as living outside the city of Rājagriha and protecting the king, ascetics, Brahmanas, the poor, orphans and merchants. Owing to their presence, the inhabitants felt secure, and no famine visited the city" (Misra Ya: 97).

Yakṣas form more than one type in art but "Due to lack of space it is not possible to discuss in detail each facet of the numerous types of representations of Yakṣas in and around Mathurā, nor to investigate the Yakṣīs, who form a subject in themselves" (Mitterwallner Ya: 368). Some Yakṣas are prominent as individuals (Kubera), and several known Yakṣas have been represented as sculptures in colossal size. J.C. Harle writes (Pe: 28) "To what extent early Buddhist art incorporated pre-Buddhist [!] elements is best demonstrated by the presence of large standing Yakṣas, identified by inscribed labels, on many of the vedikā uprights at Bhārhut … " (Pe: 28, 28-31). [158|159]

Nāgas should not be ignored in the present context (Hopkins Ep: 254; Vogel Se; Gronbold My: 431-433; Härtel So: 425-427). 'Nāgaism' is a multifarious chapter as we have seen in Section 8 (Pārśva): H. Härtel observes: "The popularity of the Nāgas equals that of another group of minor deities, i.e. the Yaksas, … Both the groups, Nāgas and Yakṣas, are worshipped in the early historical period under rather similar conditions … " (So: 425). Further categories are Vanadevatās, Nadīdevatās (mentioned already), Kinnaras, Garuas, Gaas, Bhūtas, Pretas, Apsarasas, and Gandharvas (Sivaramamurti Am: 66-82; Schneider Hi: 155-158).

Udayagiri and Khandagiri presented no Buddha images, no narrative scenes (Buddhist or Jaina, iconic or uniconic), not even stūpas in relief. Contrary to the later situation in Mathurā these caves did also not show inscriptions which could have settled the question of religious affiliation. Udayagiri and Khandagiri made ample use of tympana (above the small entries). And we know that tympana reliefs often included 'religious symbols'. But at Udayagiri and Khandagiri at least the appearing symbols never had a specific religious origin.

Why did King Khāravela not ask one of his artists to carve at least two or three miniature Jinas into the walls of the Udayagiri or Khandagiri caves? Why did the same emperor not commission a few comprehensible friezes adorning the pillars and showing legends? We have a few āyāgapaṭas with miniature Jinas, and Bharhut (an early example) shows numerous Jātakas, but there are no historical or traditional references in the caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri (in spite of the historical connection with Khāravela).

'Popular religion' is not an explanation of unknown subjects in art, but it brackets together diverse and to some extent unknown phenomena. Udayagiri and Khandagiri are not a great riddle to be solved by future generations, but they are part of the rich popular religion.

Miniature Jinas and miniature Buddhas are perhaps the beginning of iconic Jaina and Buddhist art. Refer for miniature Buddhas to Pal Pr: pls. 11-12; for miniature Jinas to āyāgapaṭas with miniature Jinas in the centre (e.g Pārśvanātha āyāgapaṭa: Quintanilla Ea: pl. 150) and to a well-known Jaina tympanon (Quintanilla Ea: pl. 233). Miniature Buddhas appear also on a pillar at Kanheri (Huntington An: pl. 9.19). The coin with Kaniṣka and the Buddha (obverse and reverse) is famous (Harle Pe: 83). Miniature Buddhas, miniature Jinas and 'miniature ascetics' are at any rate the result of a general [159|160] tendency. Yakṣas and Nāgas do not exactly disappear, but they are pushed into the background.


14. Overview II

In West India (Rajasthan etc.) our Period II (= Overview II) begins with the introduction of the dhotī for the standing Śvetāmbara Jinas and the suggestion of a dhotī in the case of some seated Śvetāmbara Jinas; in other words: with the finalization (and 'publication') of the split between the two denominations. See Pal Li: pl. 28 (Gujarat, standing Śvetāmbara Jina, bronze, "c. 600"). In Central, North and East India our Period II begins inter alia with the three Rāmagupta Jinas (JAA I: pls. 57-59, 4th century). The following text (Overview II) refers in two cases to Overview I.

For want of a better solution we have included the Jaina art of Aihole, Badami and Tamil Nadu (6th-8lh centuries) in our Overview I. The Jaina caves at Ellora (9th/10th centuries) are influenced by the Northern style and belong strictly speaking to Overview II. Even then we made reference to the Ellora caves already in Overview I. Ellora had important Pārśva and Bāhubali images following the Southern tradition just mentioned: (i) Dhaky (Tiwa-ri's pp. 107-114, Pārśva); (ii) Tiwari El: 335-344, Bāhubali.

As mentioned in most cases in our text, the Jaina art of the North has produced in post-Kuṣāṇa time a number of innovations: uṣṇīṣa, strands on the head with 'V-pattern', strands hanging down on the shoulders, cihnas, widespread caumukhas (Section 9), and multiplication of the Jina motif (tritīrthikas, pañcatīrthikas etc.). The pantheon is extended by divinities ('Jaina Couple', Kubera and Ambikā) and by Jīvantasvāmī ('Bodhisattva version of the Jina').

U.P. Shah writes: "It appears that traditions [artistic traditions] about the parikara of the Jina-image were crystallised after the Kuṣāṇa and Gupta periods" (after 700? after 800 A.D.?, JRM: 95). The parikara or image-frame literally exploded (Pal Li: pl. 25, bronze, 973 A.D.: " … the altar piece offers a busy composition with numerous figures. … Among the many figures hovering around the head of Rishabha, two elephants are engaged in bathing the Jina, and a celestial holds a conch immediatly above him." - Jina images (bronze and stone) emerged in the course of centuries (after 900? after 1000?) in huge numbers (hundreds and hundreds, greatest concentration in West India: Krüger Br).

A few observations on iconographic literature (Śāstra) are necessary. It seems that we have to concentrate in the case of Overview I mainly on two [160|161] canonical texts, containing descriptions which combine 'fantastic architecture' with 'speculative iconography' (a third relevant text includes lists of Jinas, infra). The first description is contained in the Rājapraśnīya Sūtra (Leumann Be: 55-63) and treats the heaven of the god Sūryābha. The second description belongs (mainly) to the Jīvājīvābhigama Sūtra (JRM: 93) and deals with an ideal temple: "The stock description of a [celestial] Jaina temple in Jaina canons is that of the Siddhāyatana" (Shah St: 57). Refer for the Siddhāyatana concept to Shah St: 57-58 and to JRM: 93-94. - The two descriptions belong to the canon. But they are not widespread in our two texts, elsewhere in the canon or anywhere in the extra-canonical literature.

An absolutely different type of architecture (but again 'imaginative architecture') is the samavasaraa described in early (!) post-canonical literature. The fantastic ensemble called 'samavasaraa' is an open-air amphitheatre for the preaching Jina. The samavasaraa tradition is highly complex (masterly analysis of the texts by N. Balbir, see Balbir Sa: 67-104, especially p. 71). Refer for a description of the rich literature and its rich contents (Śvetāmbara and especially Digambara) to Shah St: II.5.

A historical precursor (tree sanctuary without architecture, a place where the Jina can deliver a sermon), is once described in the canonical Aupapātika Sūtra (Leumann Au: §§ 2-10, [§§ 10-12]). The description of such a 'precursor' is unique in Jaina literature. In Buddhism, tree sanctuaries are mentioned repeatedly, and they include (always?) a structure surrounding the tree (Franz Bu: 22-25). - Small size vertical representations of the samavasaraa in Jaina art start at a late date: e.g. bronze, ca.1065 A.D., Surat (Shah St: fig. 76).

A third canonical text (Samavāya Sūtra) contains numerous lists of names: names of Jinas in other periods and in another continent (Bruhn Re: § 11 and fig. 3). The subject is connected with our Section 2 (cosmography and chronology). A precise description of the UH-material of Samavāya would be useful. The production of names anticipates a tendency of Period II (great number of names and data in the UH). There is no connection with the Rājapraśnīya and Jīvājīvābhigama Sūtras.

The material of Overview II consists inter alia of lists connected with the 24 Jinas: 24 cihnas (bull etc.), 24 Yakṣas (Gomukha etc.), 24 Yakṣīs (Cakreśvarī etc.). The description of the Jinas is extensive (their height, their parents, their residence etc. etc.), and the same applies to the Yakṣas and Yakṣīs (their hand-attributes, the number of their arms, their animals). The entire [161|162] material has been collected by Hemacandra (1089-1172) in his version of the UH, but we have no overview of Hemacandra's sources. The situation is complicated because we have to consider in the Universal History the Śvetāmbara tradition and the Digambara tradition, the canonical literature (Śvetāmbara) and the post-canonical literature.

The 16 Mahāvidyās are earlier than the 24 Yakṣīs. The earliest references are found in Saghadāsa's Vasudevahiṇḍi and in Vimala Sūri's Paumacariya. U.P. Shah gives the list of the Harivaṃśapurāṇa (nos. 1 -5: Prajñapti, Rohiī, Agāriī, Mahāgaurī, Gaurī …) and a later list (nos. 1-5: Rohiī, Prajñapti, Vajrasṛṅkhalā, Vajrākuśā, Cakreśvarī/Jāmbunadā …). Refer for a monographic treatment of the sixteen Mahāvidyās or Vidyādevīs to Shah Ma. A complete description of the Mahāvidyā material would be a useful supplement to U.P. Shah's article. - Carefully executed palm-leaf miniatures (Oghaniryukti 1161) are reproduced in Chandra We (Mahāvidyās: figs. 17-42 and pp. 138-140).

The Trilokaprajñapti (JRM: 238-239) is an old text, and we need a collection of the iconographic data contained in it. M.A. Dhaky dates the Trilokaprajñapti "c. A.D. 550" (Dhaky Ni: 297).

Many publications in Indology are close to the overview principle, but Jainism, studies in art and literature, did not follow this tendency. Overview or no overview, one hopes that future generations will take up the study of the Jaina canon and of early post-canonical literature and bring aboutsituation of increased knowledge and transparency. [162]




Alphen St

J. van Alphen, Steps to Liberation. Antwerpen 2000.

Alsdorf Fu

L. Alsdorf, Further Contributions to the History of Jain Cosmography and Mythology. Ludwig Alsdorf Kleine Schriften, ed. A. Wezler. Stuttgart 2001: 71-100.

Alsdorf Hv

Harivamśapurāna. Hamburg 1936.

Asher Ea

F.M. Asher, The Art of Eastern India, 300-800. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press 1980.

Balbir Sa

N. Balbir, An Investigation of Textual Sources on the samavasarana. Festschrift Klaus Bruhn, eds. n. Balbir & J.K. Bautze. Reinbek 1994: 67-104.

Barrett Am

D. Barrett, Sculptures from Amaravati in the British Museum. London 1954.

Basham Āj

A.L. Basham, History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas. Delhi, Varanasi, Patna.

Begley Ca

W.E. Begley, Visnu 's Flaming Wheel: The Iconography of the Sudarśana Cakra. New York 1973.

Bhattacharya Na

G. Bhattacharya, Nandipada or Nandyāvarta - The "ω-motif". BIS 13/14.2000: 265-272. BIS Berliner Indologische Studien (Reinbek).

Bossche El

F. van den Bossche, Elements of Jaina Geography. Delhi 2007.

Brockington Ep

J. Brockington, The Sanskrit Epics. Leiden: Brill 1998.

Bruhn Gr I

K. Bruhn, The Grammar of Jina Iconography I. BIS 8. 1995: 229-283.

Bruhn Gr II

K. Bruhn, The Grammar of Jina Iconography II. BIS 13/14. 2000:273-337. - correction: Fig. 5 (BIS 13/14: loose, fragment) should replace wrong Fig. 5 on p. 326 (Fig. 5 on p. 326 = wrong repetition of Fig. 1: 'Sahet-Mahet' = p. 322).

Bruhn Pr

K. Bruhn, The Predicament of Women in Ancient India. Berlin: Geerdes midimusic e.K. 2008.

Bruhn Re

K. Bruhn, Repetition in Jaina Narrative Literature. Indologica Taurinensia (Torino) 11.1983: 27-75.

Bruhn Śi

K. Bruhn, Śīlānkas Cauppaṇṇamahāpurisacariy. Hamburg 1954.

Bruhn We

K. Bruhn, Further Observations on Western Indian Miniatures. Vanamālā - Festschrift A.J.Gail, eds. K. Bruhn & G.J.R. Mevissen). Berlin 2006: 28-36.

Chandra St

Pramod Chandra, On the Study of Indian Art. Cambridge, Mass. and London 1983.

Chandra We

Moti Chandra, Jain Miniature Paintings from Western India. Ahmedabad 1949.

Coomaraswamy Bh

A.K. Coomaraswamy, La sculpture de Bharhut. Paris 1956.

Coomaraswamy Ge

A.K. Coomaraswamy, Geschichte der indischen und indonesischen Kunst. Leipzig 1927. (Transl. from the English by H. tz.)

Coomaraswamy Ya II

A.K. Coomaraswamy, Yakṣas II. Washington, D.C. 1931.

Czuma Ku

St. J. Czuma, Kushan Sculpture. Cleveland 1985.

Dehejia Di

V. Dehejia, Discourse in Early Buddhist Art. New Delhi 1997.

Deleu My

J. Deleu, Die Mythologie des Jinismus. Worterbuch der Mythologie, ed. H.W. haussig. Stuttgart 1984: 207-284.

Deo Mo

S.B. Deo, History of Jaina Monachism. Poona 1956.

Desai Vi

K. Desai, Iconography of Viṣṇu. New Delhi 1973.

Deshpande Ku

M.N. Deshpande, Kushan Bronzes from Chausa and Satavahana Bronzes. Indian Bronze Masterpieces, ed. Karl J. Khandalavala. New Delhi 1988: 22-33.

Dhaky Ni

M.A. Dhaky, The 'Cāmara-Prātihārya' in Southern Nirgrantha Representation. Festschrift Klaus Bruhn, eds. N. Balbir & J.K. Bautze. Reinbek 1994: 295-311.

Dhaky Pā

M.A. Dhaky (ed.) Arhat Pārśva and Dharanendra Nexus. Delhi 1997. [Mainly contributions by M.A. Dhaky, D.D. Malvania, U.P. Shah and M.N.P. Tiwari.]

Dundas Ja

P. Dundas, The Jains. Second edition. London: Routledge 2002.

Franz Bu

H.G. Franz, Buddhistische Kunst Indiens. Leipzig 1965.

Gail Ic

A.J.Gail, Iconography or Icononomy? Sanskrit texts on Indian art. Shastric Traditions in Indian Arts, eds. A.L. Dallapiccola et al. Stuttgart 1989: 109-114.

Gail Ja

A.J. Gail, Ein Jaina-Mönch beim Parinirvāna des Buddha. Festschrift Klaus Bruhn, eds. N. Balbir & J.K. Bautze. Reinbek 1994: 333-337.

Glasenapp Jn

H. von Glasenapp, Jainism. An Indian Religion of Salvation. Delhi 1999 [English tr. of the German original by S.B. Shrotri]

Gonda In

J. Gonda, Die Religionen Indiens. I Veda und älterer Hinduismus. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer. 2.Aufl. 1978.

Grönbold My

G. Grönbold, Die Mythologie des indischen Buddhismus. Götter und Mythen des indischen Subkontinents, ed. H.W. haussig. Stuttgart 1984: 285-508, Tafeln 1-15.

Grünwedel Bu

A. Grünwedel, Buddhstische Kunst in Indien. Berlin 1900.

Hampa Bā

Nagarajaiah Hampa, Bāhubali andBādāmi Calukyas. Shravanabelagola 2005.

Hariṣeṇa Br

Hariṣeṇa, Bhatkathākośa (sam. 989). Singhi Jain Series. Ahmedabad.[Introduction by A.N. Upadhye, 157 stories, Hariṣeṇa = pupil of Bharatasena.]

Harle Pe

J.C Harle, The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent. The Pelican History of Art. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books 1986.

Härtel So

H. Härtel, Excavations at Sonkh. Berlin 1993.

Hopkins Ep

E. Washburn Hopkins, Epic Mythology. Encyclopedia of Indo-Aryan Research. Strassburg 1915.


Hemacandra's Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra. Bhavnagar. - See also Johnson Li and UH.

Huntington An

S.L. Huntington, The Art of Ancient India. New York and Tokyo 1985.

Huntington Bo

S.L. Huntington and J.C. Huntington, Leaves from the Bodhi Tree. Dayton, Ohio 1990.


A. Ghosh (ed.), Jaina Art and Architecture. Vols. I-III. Delhi: Bharatiya Jnanpith 1974-75.

Jacobi Sū I

H. Jacobi, Jaina Sūtras, Pt. I. The Ācārāṅga Sūtra. The Kalpa Sūtra. Oxford 1884 (Sacred Books of the East 22). [The full title of the Kalpa Sūtra is Pajjusaā/Paryuaā K.S.]

Jacobi Sv

H. Jacobi, Über die Entstehung der Śvetāmbara und Digambara Sekten. Hermann Jacobi Kleine Schriften. 2, ed. B. lver. Wiesbaden 1970: 815-863.


K. Bruhn, The Jina-Images of Deogarh. Leiden 1969.

Johnson Li

Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra, or The Lives of Sixty-Three Illustrious Persons by Hemacandra, transl. into English, 6 vols. Baroda (Gaekwad's Oriental Series 51, 77, 108, 125, 139 and 140).

Joshi Ba

N.P. Joshi, Iconography of Balarāma. New Delhi 1979.

Joshi Ea

N.P. Joshi, Early Jaina Icons from Mathurā. Mathurā. The Cultural Heritage, ed. D.M. Srinivasan. New Delhi 1989: 332-382.


U.P. Shah, Jaina-Rūpa-Mandana. Volume I (Jaina Iconography). New Delhi 1987. [Articles on Jaina iconography by U.P. Shah.]

Kala Bh

S.C. Kala, Bharhut Vedikā. Allahabad 1951.

Kala Te

S.C. Kala,Terracotta Figurines from Kauśāmbī. Allahabad 1950.

Konczak Am

I. Konczak, Ein erzählendes Relief aus Amarāvatī im Museum für Indische Kunst. Indo-Asiatische Zeitschrift (Berlin) 9.2005: 14-22.

Kreisel Śi

G. Kreisel, Die Śiva-Bildwerke der Mathurā-Kunst. Stuttgart 1986.

Krüger Br

P. Krüger, Jaina-Bronzen aus Westindien. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Berlin 2009.

Lal Te

B.B. Lal and S.K. Srivastava, Perhaps the Earliest Jaina Terracotta so far Excavated in India. Madhu, Shri M.M. Deshpande Festschrift, ed. M.S. Naragaja Rao. Delhi 1981: 329-331.


dtv-Lexikon der Antike, Kunst. München 1970.

Leumann Au

E. Leumann, Das Aupapātika Sūtra. Leipzig 1883 (reprint 1966).

Leumann Be

E. Leumann, Beziehungen der Jaina-Literatur zu andern Literaturkreisen Indiens. E. Leumann Kleine Schriften, ed. N. Balbir. Stuttgart 1998: 29-124 (orignally publ. in Actes du sixieme Congres International des Orientalistes).

Lohuizen Sc

J.E. van Lohuizen-De Leeuw, The "Scythian " Period. Leiden 1949.

Longhurst Nā

A.H. Longhurst, The Buddhist Antiquities of Nāgārjunakonda. Delhi 1938.

Ludwik Sa

C. Ludwik, Sarasvatī. Riverine Goddess of Knowledge. Leiden 2007.

Mallmann Av

M.T. de Mallmann, Introduction a I etude d'Avalokitecvara. Paris 1948.

Maxwell Śi

T.S. Maxwell, Śilpa versus Śāstra. Shastric Traditions in Indian Arts, eds. A.L. Dallapiccola et al. Stuttgart 1989: 5-15.

Mevissen Ja

G.J.R. Mevissen, Corpus of Jaina Stone Sculptures … BIS 13/14.2000: 343-400.

Misra Ya

R.N. Misra, Yaksha Cult and Iconography. New Delhi 1981.

Mitra Ud

Debala Mitra, Udayagiri and Khandagiri. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India 1975.

Mitterwallner Fr

G. von Mitterwallner, Inscribed Fragmentary Sculpture of the Year 14... Essays on Indology... (Fs. R.K. Trivedi), ed. S.D. Trivedi. Vols. I-II. Delhi 1989:35-49.

Mitterwallner Ku

G. von Mitterwallner, Kuṣāṇa Coins and Kuṣāṇa Sculptures from Mathurā. Lucknow 1986.

Mitterwallner Ya

G. von Mitterwallner, Yaksas of Ancient Mathurā. Mathurā. The Cultural Heritage, ed. D.M. Srinivasan. New Delhi 1989: 368-382.

Mode Ce

H. Mode, Die buddhistische Plastik Ceylons. Leipzig 1963.

Mode Ma

H. Mode, Mathurā. Leipzig und Weimar 1986.

Moeller My

V. Moeller, Die Mythologie der Vedischen Religion und des Hinduismus. Wörterbuch der Mythologie. Stuttgart 1965: 1-204.

Moeller Sy

V. Moeller, Symbolik des Hinduismus und des Jainismus. Tafelband. Symbolik der Religionen, ed. F. Herrmann. Stuttgart 1974.

Ohira Tw

S. Ohira, The twenty-four Buddhas and the twenty-four Tīrthamkaras. Festschrift Klaus Bruhn, eds. N. Balbir & J.K. Bautze. Reinbek 1994: 475-488.

Pal Li

P. Pal, The Peaceful Liberators. Jain Art from India. Los Angeles 1994.

Pal Pr

P. Pal, A Pre-Kushan Buddha Image from Mathura. A Pot-Pourry of Indian Art, ed. P. Pal. Bombay: Marg Publications 1988: 2-20.

Picron Pa

Cl. Bautze-Picron and J.K. Bautze, The Buddhist Murals of Pagan. Bangkok 2003.

Picron St

Cl. Bautze-Picron, The 'Stele' in Bihar and Bengal, 8th to 12th C, Structure and Motifs. 5/5 2.1986: 107-131.

Picron Sy

Cl. Bautze-Picron, The 'Stele' in Bihar and Bengal, 8th to 12th Centuries - Symmetry and Composition. Panels of the VIIth World Sanskrit Conference 1987. Vol. X. Leiden 1992: 3-34.


C. Sivaramamurti, Panorama of Jain Art. New Delhi 1983.

Plaeschke Hi

H. und I. Plaeschke, Hinduistische Kunst. Leipzig 1978.


M.L. Mehta and K.R. Chandra, Prakrit Proper Names Pts. I-II. Ahmedabad 1970-1972.

Quagliotti Bu

A.M. Quagliotti, Buddhapadas. Kamakura 1998.

Quagliotti Si

A.M. Quagliotti, Again on Siddhārtha's Hair. East and West (Rome) 55.2005:217-242.

Quintanilla An

S.R. Quintanilla, Exemplars of Anekānta and Ahimsā. Ahimsā, Anekānta and Jainism, ed. T. Sethia. Delhi 2004: 187-231.

Quintanilla Āy

S.R. Quintanilla, Āyāgapaṭas: Characteristics, Symbolism, and Chronology. Artibus Asiae (Zürich/Washington) 60/1.2000: 79-137.

Quintanilla Cl

S.R. Quintanilla, Closer to Heaven than the Gods. Mārg (Mumbai) 52.3, March 2001: 57-68.

Quintanilla Ea

S.R. Quintanilla, History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura.

Ray Ea

N.R. Ray, K. Khandalavala, S. Gorakshkar, Eastern Indian Bronzes. New Delhi 1986.

Roth Ma

G. Roth, Mallī-Jñāta. Wiesbaden 1983.

Ruben Kr

W. Ruben, Krishna. Istanbul 1944.

Sahu Kh

N.K. Sahu, Khāravela. Bhubaneswar 1984.

Schlingloff Ja

D. Schlingloff, Jainas and other 'Heretics' in Buddhist Art. Jainism and Prakrit in Ancient and Medieval India. Essays for Prof. Jagdish Chandra Jain, ed. N.N. Bhattacharyya. New Delhi 1994: 71-82.

Schneider Hi

U. Schneider, Einführung in den Hinduismus. Darmstadt 1989.

Schubring Do

W. Schubring, The Doctrine of the Jainas. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 1962. [English tr. of the German original by W. Beurlen.]

Schubring Jñā

W. Schubring,Nāyādhammakahāo. Mainz: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur 1978.

Shah Ak

U.P. Shah, Jain bronzes from Western India: Akota, Vasantagadh and Valabhi."Indian Bronze Masterpieces, ed. Karl J. Khandalavala. New Delhi 1988: 54-69.

Shah Ev

U.P. Shah, Evolution of Jaina Iconography & Symbolism. Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture, eds. U.P. Shah and M.A. Dhaky. Ahmedabad 1975: 49-74.

Shah Ma

U.P. Shah, Iconography of the Sixteen Jaina Mahāvidyās. Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art (Calcutta) 15.1947: 114-177.

Shah Sa

U.P. Shah, Iconography of the Jain Goddess Sarasvatī. Journal of the University of Bombay X/2, Sept. 1941: 195-218.

Shah St

U.P. Shah, Studies in Jaina Art. Banaras 1955.

Shah Su

U.P. Shah, Jaina Bronzes. A Brief Survey. Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture, eds. U.P. Shah and M.A. Dhaky. Ahmedabad 1975: 269-298.

Sharma Bu

R.C. Sharma, Buddhist Art. Mathura School. New Delhi 1995.

Sharma Ma

R.C. Sharma, The Splendour of Mathura. New Delhi 1994.

Sivaramamurti Am

C. Sivaramamurti, Amaravati Sculptures in the Madras Government Museum. Madras 1956.

Skilling No

P. Skilling, Nonnen, Laienanhängerinnen, Spenderinnen, Göttinnen... Aspekte des Weiblichen in der indischen Kultur, ed. U. Roesler. Swisttal-Odendorf 2000: 47-102 (Indica et Tibetica 39).

Smith St

V.A. Smith, The Jain Stūpa and Other Antiquities of Mathura. 1900. (Second Edition: Indological Book House 1969).

Srinivasan Sa

D.M. Srinivasan, Samkarsana/Balarāma and the Mountain: A New Attribute. Religion and Art: New Issues in Indian Iconography and Iconology, ed. Cl. Bautze-Picron. London 2008: 93-104.


Pupphabhikkhu, Suttāgame I-II. Gurgaon 1953-1954.

Tawney Ka

C.H. Tawney, Kathā-Kośa. London 1895 (Oriental Translation Fund. New Series).

Tiwari Am

M.N.P. Tiwari, Ambikā. New Delhi 1989.

Tiwari El

M.N.P. Tiwari and Kamal Giri, Images of Bāhubalī in Ellora. Ellora Caves, eds. R. Parimoo et al. New Delhi 1988: 335-344.


Universal History. We mention UH and HTr (Hemacandra) repeatedly. - Refer for 'Devendra' (UH) to Deleu My: 253 and for 'Śīlānka' (UH) to Bruhn Śi.

Viennot Ar

O. Viennot, Le culte de I'arbre dans ITnde ancienne. Paris 1954.

Vogel Se

J.Ph. Vogel, Indian Serpent Lore. London 1927.

Waddell La

L.A. Waddell, The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism. London 1895.

Waldschmidt Bu

E. Waldschmidt, Grünwedels buddhistische Kunst in Indien. Berlin Lankwitz 1932.

Wayman Ma

A. Wayman, The Mathura Set of Aṣṭamagala. Mathura. The Cultural Heritage, ed. D.M. Srinivasan. New Delhi 1989: 236-246.

Weber He

A. Weber, Ueber die heiligen Schriften der Jaina. Indische Studien (Leipzig) 16-17.1883-1885.

Wiley Di

K.L. Wiley, Historical Dictionary of Jainism. Lanham, Toronto, Oxford 2004.

Williams Om

J.G. Williams, The Case of the Omitted Hundreds. Mathura. The Cultural Heritage, ed. D.M. Srinivasan. New Delhi 1989: 325-331.

Zimmer I-II

H. Zimmer, The Art of Indian Asia I-II. New York 1955.

Zin Mi

M. Zin, Mitleid und Wunderkraft. Schwierige Bekehrungen.... Wiesbaden 2006.


Berliner Indologische Studien

Compiled by PK


Click on categories below to activate or deactivate navigation filter.

  • Institutions
    • Jainology
      • Art and Archaeology
        • Center for Jaina Studies FU Berlin [CfJS.FU], Germany
          • Share this page on:
            Page glossary
            Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
            1. A.N. Upadhye
            2. Ahimsā
            3. Ahmedabad
            4. Aihole
            5. Allahabad
            6. Anekānta
            7. Archaeological Survey of India
            8. Arhat
            9. Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture
            10. Aupapātika
            11. BIS
            12. Badami
            13. Balarāma
            14. Banaras
            15. Bangkok
            16. Baroda
            17. Berlin
            18. Berliner Indologische Studien
            19. Bhavnagar
            20. Bhubaneswar
            21. Bihar
            22. Body
            23. Bombay
            24. Bronze
            25. Brāhmans
            26. Buddha
            27. Buddhism
            28. Bāhubali
            29. Cakra
            30. Calcutta
            31. Concentration
            32. Das
            33. Delhi
            34. Deogarh
            35. Dharanendra
            36. Dharma
            37. Digambara
            38. Ellora
            39. Ellora Caves
            40. Gujarat
            41. Gurgaon
            42. Hemacandra
            43. Hermann Jacobi
            44. Historical Dictionary Of Jainism
            45. Huntington
            46. Indologica Taurinensia
            47. JAINA
            48. Jacobi
            49. Jagdish Chandra Jain
            50. Jain Art
            51. Jaina
            52. Jaina Art
            53. Jaina Canon
            54. Jaina Sūtras
            55. Jaina Temple
            56. Jainism
            57. Jina
            58. K. Bruhn
            59. Kala
            60. Kalpa
            61. Kalpa Sūtra
            62. Kamal Giri
            63. Khandagiri
            64. Klaus Bruhn
            65. Krishna
            66. L. Alsdorf
            67. Leumann
            68. London
            69. Lucknow
            70. Ludwig Alsdorf
            71. M.A. Dhaky
            72. Madras
            73. Mahāvidyā
            74. Mathura
            75. Misra
            76. Motilal Banarsidass
            77. Mumbai
            78. München
            79. N. Balbir
            80. Nagarajaiah Hampa
            81. New Delhi
            82. Nirgrantha
            83. OM
            84. Oghaniryukti
            85. Orissa
            86. PK
            87. Parikara
            88. Patna
            89. Poona
            90. Prajñapti
            91. Prakrit
            92. Pārśva
            93. Pārśvanātha
            94. Rajasthan
            95. Rishabha
            96. Sacred Books of the East
            97. Samavasarana
            98. Sanskrit
            99. Sarasvatī
            100. Schubring
            101. Shravanabelagola
            102. Space
            103. Surat
            104. Sūtra
            105. Tamil
            106. Tamil Nadu
            107. The Predicament of Women in Ancient India
            108. The Splendour
            109. Toronto
            110. Udayagiri
            111. Uṣṇīṣa
            112. Varanasi
            113. Veda
            114. Vimala
            115. W. Schubring
            116. Washington
            117. World Sanskrit Conference
            118. Yaksas
            119. Yaksha
            120. Yakṣa
            121. Ācārāṅga
            122. Ācārāṅga Sūtra
            123. Śvetāmbara
            124. Śāstra
            Page statistics
            This page has been viewed 3707 times.
            © 1997-2021 HereNow4U, Version 4.5
            Contact us
            Social Networking

            HN4U Deutsche Version
            Today's Counter: