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Anekanta : Philosophy of Co-existence: 06.10 The Doctrine of Nayas - Viewpoints and the Classification of Imports (Naya and Niksepa)

Published: 29.07.2010
Updated: 29.07.2010

Chapter 6

The Doctrine of Nayas: Infinite Modes and Infinite Approaches

Viewpoints and the Classification of Imports

Naya and Niksepa

A viewpoint has a reference to the object, the knowledge or the verbal symbol, the niksepa has also a similar reference. The naya is knowledge whereas the niksepa is the practical application or usage. The naya and niksepa are mutually related as theory and its practical application.


Practical Application

(the table in the book is faultily printed - correct version is expected to come)

When a single word denotes the name, form and the different modes of an object, the question of the intended and unintended denotatum comes up. The word 'lion' may mean the picture of a lion or the lion as a living animal. The dead body of a lion is also denoted by the word 'lion'. The lion qua meaning presents itself as soon as one hears the expression 'lion'. In this way the different modes of the meaning as classes of imports arise. Such classifications as determined by adjuncts are requisitioned for defining the meaning of a particular word under exposition. The niksepa in fact is the selection of a particular meaning from among the meanings of a word.

Knowledge and meditation are only the two stages of a single process. An object acts as a cognitum in respect of an unsteady state of the cognition. The same object, however, becomes a meditatum (an object of meditation) with reference to a steady state of the mind called meditation. The niksepa has an important bearing on the process of meditation. One may concentrate on mere name as the meditatum, or on a form or on any past, future or a present mode. In this way any of the numerous modes of an object can become a suitable meditatum.

An image is the representative of the original object, and this is the reason why the pantoscopic viewpoint identifies the original substance (thing) with the idea. The name (nomenclature) has reference to the denotatum and so the verbal viewpoint identifies the original object with the verbum (verbal object). The past and future modes are super­imposed on the object, and thus the pantoscopic, synthetic and analytic viewpoints identify the past and future modes with the present mode of the original object. The verbal viewpoint considers the present mode alone as real. In this way the qualified verbal usage is approved by the nayas for giving expression to the different modes of an object. By this process one can arrive at the meaning intended by the speaker through words by overcoming doubt, perversion (error) and uncertainty.


Anekanta: Philosophy of Co-existence Publisher:  JainVishwa Bharati, Ladnun, Rajasthan, India Editor: Muni Akshay Prakash

Edition:  2010 (1. Edition)

ISBN:  817195140-6

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