Historical Sources on the Loṅkāgaccha- and Sthānakavāsī-Traditions in Johannes Klatt's Jaina-Onomasticon

Published: 10.02.2016
Updated: 10.02.2016

Historical Sources on the Loṅkāgaccha- and Sthānakavāsī-Traditions in Johannes Klatt's Jaina-Onomasticon[1]

http://www.herenow4u.net/fileadmin/v3media/pics/persons/Johannes_Klatt/Johannes_Klatt_s_Jaina-Onomasticon_07.jpghttp://www.herenow4u.net/fileadmin/v3media/pics/persons/Johannes_Klatt/Johannes_Klatt_s_Jaina-Onomasticon_05.jpg
Johannes Klatt, Jaina Onomasticon. Berlin 1893 (Manuscript Bound in Eight Volumes. Hamburg, Institut für Indologie und Tibetologie)

In the absence of extensive archaeological evidence, monastic chronologies and hagiographies, inscriptions and the information in the colophons of handwritten or printed Jaina texts are almost the only sources available for the reconstruction of Jaina religious and social history. This fact was highlighted by Walther Schubring who, in his classical work on the Śvetāmbara doctrines of the Jainas, emphasised that '[a]ll history of literature, a building, as it were, has for its ground-floor the bio-bibliographical materials.'  [2]  Schubring lamented the early demise of Johannes Emil Klatt (1852-1908) who had dedicated his short life to the study of the historical records of the Jainas. Klatt left behind the nearly completed manuscript of his monumental Jaina-Onomasticon, a collection of proper names (Greek: onoma) of Jaina authors, legendary figures, texts and place names with explanatory historical notes, handwritten in English, which is still unpublished. 'Jain research would have enjoyed the great luck of having them [the Jaina bio-biographical materials] at its disposal, if KLATT's Onomasticon had been completed and printed', Schubring wrote. 'Eight volumes from his own hand in alphabetical order contain what was within his reach to collect data concerning Jain authors and works. But he fell severely ill and never recovered. The work was estimated to fill some 1,100 pages in print, but no more than 55 pages have been printed as a specimen thanks to WEBER and LEUMANN.'[3] Few biographical details are known about Johannes Klatt. The only sources are brief notes in academic publications of his teacher and colleagues and in the autobiography of his son Fritz Klatt.[4] He was born on 31.1.1852 in Filehne, Posen, and died after a long illness in Bonn on 28.8.1908. He studied Indology under Albrecht Weber (1825-1901)  in Berlin between 1868 and 1872 and in 1873 completed his doctorate at the University of Halle with a dissertation entitled De trecentis Cāṇakyae poetae indici sententiis.[5] Klatt worked at the Royal Library in Berlin, part time from 1872, as assistant from 1874, then as Kustos (custodian) from October 1880 and finally as Bibliothecarius (librarian) from April 1889.[6] He was married to Margarete née Patzig (1861-1928) with whom he had two sons, the pedagogue Fritz Klatt (1888-1945), who pioneered adult education in the Weimar Republic,[7] and the painter Albert Klatt (1892-1970). Klatt's published research focused on Jaina manuscripts and on the history of Jaina monasticism, based on the available chronologies and biographies. In his preface of 15 October 1892 to the fifty-five page revised edition of a sample of Klatt's magnum opus, Klatt's teacher Albrecht Weber (1892: iii) referred to the 'tragic catastrophe' that prematurely ended Klatt's efforts of ten years to complete his Jaina-Onomasticon, apparently because he had 'unduly exerted himself' for this 'grandiose' achievement, and in future would probably never be able to work again 'at the same speed.' At the time, Weber still expressed his hope that Klatt would recover, which he never did. Yet, already on 21 April 1892, because Klatt was no longer able to do so himself, Weber had presented to the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences a specimen of Klatt's work, featuring information on important Śvetāmbara commentators such as Abhayadeva, Umāsvāti, Haribhadra, Jinabhadra and all other names beginning with Jina.[8] A biographical note on Klatt was published during his lifetime by Klatt's 'gurubhāī' and friend Ernst Leumann (1859-1931).[9] It took the form of a mock paṭṭāvalī, which turned out to be one of the main sources of our meagre knowledge of the great chronographer's own life:

http://www.herenow4u.net/fileadmin/v3media/pics/persons/Johannes_Klatt/Johannes_Klatt.jpg'The chronology of his life, presented by way of one of the Paṭṭâvalîs so happily brought to light by his researches, is as follows: - Johannes Klatt: born 1852 A.D. as the son of the postmaster of Filehne (in the Prussian province of Posen); dîkshâ (matriculation) at the Berlin University 1868; after four years' study there, he took his Doctor's degree by presenting (see Boehtlingk's Indische Sprüche, 2nd ed., Part III, Preface) a paper on "Châṇakya's Sentences" to the University of Halle; 1873 'Volunteer' at the Berlin Royal Library (still earning his living for a couple of years as official stenographist in the Prussian House of Commons), 1880 'Custos,' 1882-92 (nominally also 1893) "Librarian."'[10]

In his note, published as a footnote to Klatt's last published work, Leumann also mentioned that no further contribution of Klatt 'can come from his pen', and noted the 'irreparable loss' caused by the sudden 'disappearance from literature' of 'the eminent Indianistic Chronicler and Bibliographist' 'as a year or two more of work would have allowed him to complete what has been slowly growing into shape in his study during the past ten years' (ibid.). Leumann was familiar with Klatt's work. Over many years, he supplied his friend with supplementary information for the Jaina-Onomasticon.[11] In addition to editing the last fifteen pages of the Specimen, which Klatt had prepared before his progressing illness rendered work impossible, Leumann also brought Klatt's last article to publication, and in 1893 took over the task of arranging the parts of the text that Klatt left behind. He had them 'bound into eight stately volumes' (ibid.), which his student Schubring later deposited in the library of the Seminar für Kultur und Geschichte Indiens, which is now integral to the library of the Asien-Afrika-Institut of the University of Hamburg.

Klatt's encyclopaedic compilation of literary-bibliographical information on Jaina authors, texts and biographies is still without parallel. Mehta and Chandra's (1970-72) work Prakrit Proper Names covers somewhat similar ground. But Mehta and Chandra focus exclusively on the Śvetāmbara Āgamas and their commentaries however, while Klatt concentrates on post-canonical sources from both Digambara and Śvetāmbara authors. Klatt based his work on the lists of Jaina manuscripts published by Weber (18531892), Bühler (1869-1880), Bhandarkar (1882-1897), Kielhorn (1869-1882), Peterson (1882-1899), Khatavate (1891-1901) and all other relevant textual, bibliographical and epigraphic sources at hand.[12] His search for information motivated family holidays, for instance in Italy, where he conducted research on the manuscript collections of Florence, Milan, and elsewhere.[13]

Even without updates, for the historian of Jainism Klatt's Jaina-Onomasticon is an invaluable resource. This was recognised by his contemporaries. Klatt's text was praised both by A. Weber, E. Leumann[14] and W. Schubring as one of the landmarks of modern scholarship in this field. They all agreed that the 4,132 pages long manuscript, starting with and ending with, was ready for publication, albeit with two or three years of editing work remaining.  On 15 October 1892, A. Weber (1892: iii-iv) estimated the size of the printed Onomasticon at ca. 1120 pages, twenty times the size of the Specimen, if a system of abbreviations is used to save space, while conceding, because Jaina Studies was still in its infancy, that additions could have been made already half a year later, even to the published Specimen.[15] Schubring (1935 § 4: 8, n. 2) concurred with Weber's verdict that the manuscript was basically ready for publication (albeit in need of supplementation): 'At the time, the manuscript would presumably have been ready for the press, given a practicable technique of abbreviation and onesided type.' Yet, though the work deserves to be accessible to the wider world of scholarship, Johannes Klatt's JainaOnomasticon remains unpublished to this day. The task to prepare the manuscript for the press is still a desideratum for modern Jainology.

In 2010, the Centre of Jaina Studies at SOAS initiated the first steps towards the publication of Klatt's work. With the support of the Library of the Asien-Afrika-Institut in Hamburg, which kindly made the original manuscript available, the text is currently being transcribed and prepared for editing. An initial trial for its transcription has been funded through the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Grant AH/I002405/1 and Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant RPG-2012-620 has funded the production of a print edition of Klatt's text. It is hoped that the English text, once published both in print and in an expandable electronic format, will serve as a valuable research tool to future generations of scholarship.

http://www.herenow4u.net/fileadmin/v3media/pics/persons/Johannes_Klatt/Johannes_Klatt_s_Jaina-Onomasticon_06.jpg
Handwritten page from Klatt's Jaina Onomasticon.

'Luṅkā' and 'Ḍhuṇḍhaka'

The remainder of this article is devoted to a brief illustration, at the hand of two examples, the terms ʽLuṅkāʼ and ʽḌhuṇḍhakaʼ, of the difficulties faced by the editors of this text, and an analysis of the implications of the sources available to Klatt on his text. To assess the feasibility of the project, selected texts from Klatt's Vol. III and IV have been transcribed by Christopher Gibbons and the present writer. Klatt's text and the references mentioned therein were checked (as far as possible) and, in parts, corrected and re-formatted; sometimes following suggestions by Klatt, who structured his text occasionally according to the historical sequence of his primary sources, that is, mainly catalogues and reports on manuscript collections. Nāgarī keywords were transliterated into Roman script. To make the text more accessible, indentations, italics and small caps were added. For Klatt's abbreviation 'S.' (Saṃvat), 'VS' (Vikram Saṃvat) is used. Abbreviations such as 'Ḍh.' (Ḍhuṇḍhaka), 'a.' (anna), fr.b. (from bottom), 'l.' (line[s], or leave[s]), n. (catalogue number, or note), s. (see), and acronyms for references have been spelled out in this article to enhance readability. Others, like p. (page), Guj. (Gujarātī), and others such as rg. possibly referring to an officially ʻregistered' nineteenth century print publication, have been maintained. Missing diacritics, for instance in 'Lálaji' (Lālajī), have also occasionally been supplemented. The aim of consistency could however not be accomplished. Systematically imposing new editorial conventions to disambiguate Klatt's use of abbreviations and acronyms will obliterate much of the historical information preserved in the text. Klatt generally accepted the diverse methods of transcribing Indic words used in his sources and merely added analytical word-divisions. This makes his manuscript stylistically incoherent. At the same time, it offers valuable insights in the fluid state of knowledge amongst leading scholars of the period confronting a flood of entirely new information. 'Ḍhuṇḍhaka', for instance, is rendered as 'Ḍhuṇḍhakar', 'Dhundhiā' or 'Dhundiā', though only the category 'Ḍhuṇḍhaka' is listed. Instead of the now preferred term 'Loṅkā', 'Luṅkā' is used. However, another entry designating the same individual is 'Laukā.'

Only the proper name 'Luṅkā' and the sect-designations 'Lumpāka-matam' and 'Ḍhuṇḍhaka-matam' and some related names listed in the Onomasticon will be investigated here to probe into Klatt's methods and sources. Klatt's manuscript is of considerable value for identifying rare and yet unexplored sources, not least for the study of the aniconic or 'protestant' Jaina traditions, which have produced only few original texts in their more than five hundred year long history, since they put a premium on the sole authority of the āgamas. Many of their surviving scriptures continue to be suppressed by their opponents from the image-worshipping Jaina traditions. The aniconic traditions were launched in fifteenth century Gujarāt as a protest movement against the 'laxity' of contemporary mendicants by a Śvetāmbara layman known as 'Loṅkā' or 'Lumpaka', the 'breaker' of images or 'violator' of tradition, who inspired the creation of the Loṅkāgaccha mendicant orders, from which a variety of new reform movements split in the seventeenth century which are now collectively known as 'Sthānakavāsī' or 'hall-dweller'[16] traditions. One of the original five of these schismatic aniconic monastic movements are the 'Ḍhuṇḍakas', or 'searchers', called 'Ḍhūṁḍhakas', the ruin-dwellers[17] by their Jaina opponents. This particular 'Sthānakavasī tradition was created by Lavajī Ṛṣi from Surat sometime between 1648 and 1656.[18] Most of the founders of the other four principal Sthānakavāsī movements, such as Dharmasiṅha,[19] the founder of the Aṭh Koṭi tradition, and Dharmadāsa,[20] the founder of the Bāīstola tradition, and a few of their successors, are also registered in the Jaina-Onomasticon, and some of their literature.

The full real name of 'Loṅkā' is unknown.[21] Ācārya Hastīmal[22] notes that Loṅkā is variously called lumpaka (which he interprets as luṭerā, thief) or luṅgā (which he interprets as luccā, scoundrel), etc., by his opponents. A. Weber[23] and D. D. Mālvaṇiyā[24] interpret lumpaka as the Sanskrit rendering of luṃkā (lauṃkā), the 'breaker' or 'destroyer' of (the worship of) images or of the tradition (from the Sanskrit √ lup, to break, violate; lopaka, violating). See Turner (1966/1973: 643,645) on lupyatē, and for the uncertain meaning of luṅka, which he hypothetically derives from lukka (Sub. lupta). At the time of Klatt, whatever was known about the aniconic Jaina traditions was based on reports from their Mūrtipūjaka critics, such as Dhamasāgara-gaṇin (d. 1596)[25] and Ācārya Vijayānandasūri (1836-1896), also known as Ātmārāma (his earlier Sthānakavāsī name) or Ātmānanda (his Mūrtipūjaka name), with whom many European Indologists communicated via letter and intermediaries.[26] Hence, the polemical term Luṅkā was used to describe the founder of the Lumpaka tradition and the Ḍhūṃḍhakas are listed under the name Ḍhuṇḍhaka.

Most of the references to primary sources on Loṅkā and the members and literatures of the Loṅkāgacchas collected by Klatt and others have not yet been systematically studied.[27] The following are the main entries he gives on Loṅkā and the Lumpākamatam: [28]

  • LUṄKĀ Lekhaka[29] founded VS 1508 the Luṅkā-matam jine-pratimotthāpana-param, INDIAN ANTIQUARY XI 256 a n. 52, WEBER II 1013 line 14-5,[30] AJ'ĀNA-TIMIRABHĀSKARA, kh[aṇḍa]. 2, p. 43.
  • Ratnacanda of the Vṛihan-nāgorī-Luṅkā-gaccha VS 1942, WEBER II 788 line 9-10.[31]
  • Rājasiṅha and Raghunātho, VS 1857, of the Vṛihal-lauṅkā-gaccha, see PĀRҪVA-JINAVARA-MAHIMAN  STOTRA, Kāҫī 1880, p. 32.[32]
  • JAINA-TATTVĀDARҪA, p. 583 following succession: ṛishi Bhāṇā (Bhūṇā, BHĀṆḌĀRKAR REPORT 1883/4 p. 154) VS 1533, Būjajī 1568, Jīvājī-ṛishi 1578, Vṛiddha-varasiṅhajī 1649, isa Lumpaka-mata ke tīna nāma hūe, 1 Gujarātī, 2 Nāgorī, 3 Uttarādhī iti Lumpaka-matotpattiḥ.
  • MILES. TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY III 346 mentions a Lunca Paṭṭāvalī.[33]
  • Origin VS 1527, ZEITSCHRIFT DER DEUTSCHEN MORGENLÄNDISCHEN GESELLSCHAFT 38, [p.] 9,[34] in Aṇahalla-pattana in Gujara-deҫa by Luṅka of the Prāgvaṭa-kula, ib. p. 13. 40.[35]
  • ҪRĪ-LOKA-GACCHĪYA-ҪRĀVAKASYA SĀRTHA-PA'CA-PRATIKRAMAṆA-SŪTRA, Bombay, Jagadīҫvar press 1883. 236 p.  Re. l. Succession from Hīrākara-sūri VS 1640 till Amṛtacandra-sūri VS 1939, see … [?] BHAGAVATĪ, Ben. [Benares] VS 1938, title.
  • Rāmacandra-gaṇi and his pupil Nānakacanda VS 1937, see STHĀNĀṄGA ed. Ben. VS 1937.
  • Tejasiṅgha VS 1766, Lokag[acchīya]-Pratikr[amaṇa-sūtra], Bomb[ay] 1887, p. 219-35.
  • LONKA-GACCHĪYA-ҪRĀVAKASYA SĀRTHA-PA'CA-PRATIKRAMAṆA-SŪTRA, Bombay Jagadiҫvar press 1882. 218 p. Re. 1. 4a (CATALOGUE BOMBAY 1882 IV 16-7).
  • VS 1572 Rūpacand Sorānā of his own accord put on the monks' garb and originated the Nāgorī Lumpaka sect, ĀTMĀRĀMJĪ'S PAṬṬA-VṚIKSHA (HOERNLE).
  • Nāga-purīyāhvā Luṅkā-gaṇe at the end of Anuttaraupapātika, Calc[utta],
  • LOKĀ-GACCHĪYA ҪRĀVAKASYA SĀRTHA-PA'CA-PRATIKRAMAṆA-SŪTRA. 3. ed. Bombay, Jagadiҫvār press VS 1943, 6, 270 p.

[…...]

  • LUMPĀKAMATAM[36] INDIAN ANTIQUARY XI 256a n. 55, WEBER II 1013 line 24, 30.[37] From it the Vīja-matam arose VS 1570.
  • ib. 1013f. line 25. JOURNAL OF THE BOMBAY BRANCH OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY I 98 n. 23.
  • Lumpāka-mukhya-kumata combatted by Vimalaharsha, MS. OR. FOL. 673 n. 32.
  • Lumpākānāṃ pratimā-nishedhaḥ their principal heresy, BHĀṆḌĀRKAR REPORT 1883/4 p.456 line 7 from bottom. WEBER II 956 note [3].
  • Lumpaka-gaṇopāsaka Rāya [Bāhādur] Dhanapatisiṅha, see SAMAVĀYĀṄGA, ed. Ben[ares] VS 1937.[38]
  • Lupaka-gacche ҫrī Amṛitacandra-sūri, see AUPAPĀTIKA, ed. VS 1936.[39]
  • Lavajī, grandson of Borā Vīrajī of the Lumpaka sect originated VS 1709 the Ḍhuṇḍhaka sect. Likhārī of the Lumpaka sect originated VS 1734 a sect which rejects the Jina image and the holy scripture.[40]
  • LUMPĀKAMATAKUṬṬANA comp. by followers of the Kharatara-gaccha VS 1687, beg[ins] Natvā ҫruta-jñānam-ananta-bhedaṃ, 21 l[eaves] BENDALL JOURN[EY] p. 47, 63.[41][…]
  • LAUKĀ[42] lekhaka erected VS 1608 a statue in Ahamadāvāda,[43] there the Laukā-matam arose VS 1524, INDIAN ANTIQUARY XI 249b n. 57, WEBER II 1050 line 7-8, INDIAN ANTIQUARY VIII 311.[44]

In contrast to 'Luṅkā' and 'Lumpākamatam', 'Lumpākamatakuṭṭana' and 'Laukā', the main entry on 'Ḍhuṇḍḥaka' includes references to primary literature of this monastic tradition, in particular a paṭṭāvalī. One text, however, the Aṭṭhāvana bolo was most likely composed by Loṅkā himself.[45] Textual references are presented by Klatt generally after the historical data related to an author or tradition. However, further additions were simply appended in the manuscript:[46]

Concluding remarks

The brief review of the entries on Luṅkāmatam and Ḍhuṇḍhakamatam, etc., shows that a lot could have been learned about the aniconic traditions already more than a century ago had Johannes Klatt's yet unpublished magnum opus been utilized. Since this was not done, hardly any of the standard textbooks on Jainism offers even basic information on the aniconic traditions, with the exception of the well known work by Paul Dundas, which made a start. Even Klatt's information stemmed largely from the works of opponents of the protestant traditions. This was unavoidable at the time, since no other information was made available. The state of knowledge on the aniconic traditions reflected in the pages of the Jaina-Onomasticon is still embryonic and in itself unreliable, which probably is the reason why it was shunned by previous generations of indological scholarship.[footer]56">[55[/footer

Concluding remarks

The brief review of the entries on Luṅkāmatam and Ḍhuṇḍhakamatam, etc., shows that a lot could have been learned about the aniconic traditions already more than a century ago had Johannes Klatt's yet unpublished magnum opus been utilized. Since this was not done, hardly any of the standard textbooks on Jainism offers even basic information on the aniconic traditions, with the exception of the well known work by Paul Dundas, which made a start. Even Klatt's information stemmed largely from the works of opponents of the protestant traditions. This was unavoidable at the time, since no other information was made available. The state of knowledge on the aniconic traditions reflected in the pages of the Jaina-Onomasticon is still embryonic and in itself unreliable, which probably is the reason why it was shunned by previous generations of indological scholarship.[footer]56] However, it points to yet untapped sources the critical study of which will lead to more certain reconstructions of the history of a tradition which today comprises of about one third of all Jainas.

SOURCES USED BY KLATT

Ātmārāma, Ācārya [Vijayānandasūri, also: Ātmānanda]. Jainatattvādarśa. Bhāg 1 & 2. Ed. Banārsīdās Jain. Pañcama Saṃskaraṇa. Bambaī: Ātmānanda Jaina Sabhā, 1881/1954. -. Samyaktva Śalyoddhāra. Lahore: Ātmānanda Jaina Sabhā Pañjāb, [1885] 1884/1909. [Hindī translation of the original Gujarātī text] -. Ajñānatimirabhāskara. Mumbai: Jainadharma Hitecchu Sabhā, 1888/1906 (2. Edition: Jaina Ātmānand Sabhā in Bhāvnagar).-. Paṭṭa-vṛiksha (Hoernle). -. Communication by Letter with J. Klatt.

Bayley, Edward Clive. The History of India As Told by Its Own Historians: The Local Muhammadan Dynasties. Gujarát. London: W.H. Allen and Co., Publishers to the India Office, 1886 (Reprint: S. Chand & Co., 1970).

BENDALL JOURNEY. See Bendall 1886.

Bendall, Cecil. A Journey of Literary and Archaeological Research in Nepal and Northern India, During the Winter of 1884–5. Cambridge: University Press, 1886 (Appendice II: Rough List of MSS. In the Jain Mandir, Benares).[57]

Bhandarkar, Ramakrishna Gopal. Report on the Search for Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Bombay Presidency During the Year 1883-1884. Bombay: Government Central Press, 1887.

Bhandarkar, Shridhar Ramakrishna. Report of a Second Tour in Search of Sanskrit Manuscripts made in Rajputana and Central India in 1904-5 and 1905-6. Bombay: The Government Central Press, 1907.

Bhandarkar, Shridhar Ramakrishna (Comp.). A Catalogue of the... [Sanskrit] Manuscripts Deposited in the Deccan College [Poona]. With an Index. Bombay: Government Central Press, 1888.

CATALOGUE BOMBAY. See Sāthe.

Catalogue of Sanskrit Books for Sale at the Pandit Jyeshtharam Mukundjee's Book Depot. Bombay 1892 [Electronic Reproduction: Hathi Trust Digital Library, 2011].

Dharmasāgaragaṇi. Gūrvāvalīsūtram (Ms. Or. Fol. 997). In: Weber 1892: 997-1015.

GACCHA-NĀMĀNUKRAMAṆIKĀ.

Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. Vol. VIII. Kāthiāwār. Bombay: Government Central Press, 1889.

Hemacandrasūri, Ācārya. Viśeṣāvaśyaka-vṛtti. In:  Weber (1888: 788).

Jacobi, Hermann. 'Ueber die Entstehung der Çvetâmbara und Digambara Sekten.' Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 38 (1884) 1-42.

Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society I.

Khān, Alī Muḥammad. Mirʼāt-i Aḥmadī-i ṣūba-i Aḥmadābād Guǧrāt. The Political and Statistical History of Gujarát. Translation of the Persian of Alí Mohammed Khán, the Revenue Minister of the Province; to which are Added, Copious Annotations, and an Historical Introduction by James Bird. London: Bentley, 1835 (Oriental Translation Fund 47).

-. 'Mirát-i-Aḥmadí.' See Bayley 1886.

Kunte, Kāshi Nāth. Report on Sanskrit Manuscripts for (1) Quarter July to September 1880, (2) Quarter Oct. to December 1880, (3) Year 1880-81, (4) Quarter April to June 1881. Lahore, 1882. [BL: W 988]

Logan, William. 'The Six Tírthaka.' The Indian Antiquary VIII (1879) 311-314.

Manāk, Bhīmasiṃha (ed.). Prakaraṇa-ratnākara. Vol. III (4 Vols). Bombay, 1876-78.

Miles, Lieut.-Colonel William. 'On the Jainas of Gujerat and Mārwār.' Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 3 (1835) 335-371 (Communication of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Read 7th of January 1832).

Monier-Williams, William, Rang Lāl & (Colonel) William Davies. [32.1.1888: On the Jains.] In: Thomas Wade 'I. Reports of Meetings of the Royal Asiatic Society, Session 1887–88.' Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland N.S. 20, 2 (1888) 277-288.

Paṭṭāvalīvācanā. Anonymous Text of the Kharataragaccha. In: A. Weber 1892: 10301056.

Peterson, Peter. A Third Report of Operations in Search of Sanskrit Mss. in the Bombay Circle April 1884-March 1886. Extra Number of the Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Bombay: Society's Library, Town Hall/London: Trübner & Co., 1887.

Ratnanandin, Ācārya. Bhadrabāhucaritra (15th-16th C.E.). See Jacobi (1884: 9).

Samavāyāṅga. Edited by Rāya Dhanapatisiṃha Bahādura. Benares, VS 1937 (1880).

Sāthe, G. M. (Registrar of Native Publications). Catalogue of Books Printed in the Bombay Presidency. During the Quarter Ending 31st March 1888 – 10th February 1891. Bombay: Government Central Press, 1888-1891.

Weber, Albrecht. Verzeichniss der Sanskrit- und Prâkṛit-Handschriften der Königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin. Zweiter Band. Erste Abtheilung. Die Handschriften-Verzeichnisse der Königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin. Fünfter Band. Berlin: A. W. Schade, 1886.

-. Verzeichniss der Sanskrit- und Prâkṛit-Handschriften der Königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin. Zweiter Band, Zweite Abtheilung Die Handschriften-Verzeichnisse der Königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin. Fünfter Band. Berlin: A. Asher & Co., 1888.

-. Verzeichniss der Sanskrit- und Prâkṛit-Handschriften der Königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin. Zweiter Band. Dritte Abtheilung. Die Handschriften-Verzeichnisse der Königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin. Fünfter Band. Berlin: A. Asher & Co., 1892

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY[58]

Bender, Ernest. 'An Early Nineteenth Century Study of the Jains.' Journal of the American Oriental Society 96, 1 (1976) 114-119.

Böhm, Winfried. 'Klatt, Fritz.' Neue Deutsche Biographie 11 (1977) 710-711.

Hartwig. O & K. Schultz (Hg.). Centralblatt für Bibliothekswesen. Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz, 1884 ff.

Flügel, Peter. 'Protestantische und Post-Protestantische Jaina-Reformbewegungen: Zur Geschichte und Organisation der Sthānakavāsī I-IV.' Berliner Indologische Studien 13/14 (2000) 37-103, 15-17 (2003) 149-240, 18 (2007) 127-206, 20 (2012) 37-126. -. 'The Unknown Loṅkā: Tradition and the Cultural Unconscious.' Jaina Studies. Papers of the 12th World Sanskrit Conference Vol. 9. Eds. Colette Caillat & Nalini Balbir, 181278. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas, 2008. (https://eprints.soas.ac.uk/3195/) -. 'Changing Self-Perceptions: Reflections on the Social History of Modern Jainism.' The Jaina and the British. Universität Tübingen, 19.2.2010.  -. Die Sthānakavāsī Śvetāmbara Jaina-Orden in Nordindien. Protestantische und PostProtestantische Jaina-Reformbewegungen. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz Verlag, 2012.

Hastīmal, Ācārya. Jaina Dharma kā Maulik Itihās, IV. Jaypur: Jaina Itihās Samiti, 1987/1995.

Jain, Sāgarmal & Vijay Kumār. 2003: Sthānakavāsī Jain Paramparā kā Itihās. Vārāṇasī: Pārśvanāth Vidyāpīṭh.

Klatt, Fritz. Biographische Aufzeichnungen. Mit einer Vorbemerkung zu den Briefen von Gertrud Breysig und der Bibliographie seiner Schriften und Beiträge von Ursula Schulz. Bremen: Bremer Volkshochschule, 1965 (Bremer Beiträge zur Freien Volksbildung, Heft 7).

Klatt, Johannes Emil. Klatt, Johannes. De trecentis Cāṇakyae poetae Indici sententiis dissertatio inauguralis philologica, quam consensu et auctoritate amplissimi

philosophorum ordinis in Academia Fridericiana Halensi cum Vitebergensi consociata ad summos in philosophia honores capessendos d. XV m. Febr. a. MDCCCLXXIII hor. XII una cum thesibus publice defendet scriptor Johannes Klatt Brombergensis: adversariorum partes susceperunt Konrad Zacher, cand. phil., Aemilius Gaessner, cand. phil. Academia Fridericiana, Halis Saxonum, 1873 (Berolini, Typis: A W. Schadii).

-. 'Dhanapāla's Ṛishabhapañcāçikā'. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 33 (1879a) 445-477.

-. 'Die Jaina-Handschriften der K. Bibliothek zu Berlin'. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 33 (1879b) 478-483.

-.'Vorderindien'. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Jahresbericht der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 34 (1880) 13-43.

-.'Vorderindien'. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Jahresbericht der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 35 (1881) 20-59.

-. 'Indien'. Jahresbericht der Geschichtswissenschaft. Im Auftrage der Historischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin herausgegeben von F. Abraham, J. Hermann und E. Meyer. II. Jahrgang 1879. Berlin: Ernst Siegfried Mittler & Sohn, [1880] (1881) 1-26.

-. 'Islam'. Ibid. (1881) 237-249.

-. 'Indische Drucke'. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 35 (1881) 189-206.

-. 'Extracts from the Historical Records of the Jains'. The Indian Antiquary XI (1882) 245-256.

-. 'Christian Lassen'. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie 17 (1883) 784-788.

-. Literatur-Blatt für orientalische Philologie. Band 1-4. Hg. Ernst Wilhelm Adalbert Kuhn. Unter Mitwirkung von Johannes Klatt. Leipzig: Schulze, 1883-1886 (Later: Orientalische Bibliographie).

-. 'Eine apokryphe Paṭṭāvalī der Jainas'. Festgruss an Otto von Böhtlingk zum DoktorJubiläum 3. Februar 1888 von seinen Freunden, 54-59. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1888.

-. 'Friedrich August Rosen'. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie 29 (1889) 192-195.

-. 'The Date of the Poet Māgha'. Vienna Oriental Journal / Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 4 (1890) 61-71.

-. 'Die Handschriften-Verzeichnisse der Königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin'. Centralblatt für Bibliothekswesen 7, 5 (1891) 177-196.

-. 'Specimen eines Jaina-Onomastikons (Vorgelegt von Hrn. Weber)'. Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Jahrgang XXII 1892. Erster Halbband. Januar bis Mai. Gesamtsitzung 21 April, 349-362. Berlin: Verlag der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, in Commission bei Georg Reimer, 1892a.

-. Specimen of a literary-bibliographical Jaina-Onomasticon. [Fifteen of the FiftyFive Pages Corrected by Ernst Leumann. With a Preface in German by Albrecht Weber.] Leipzig: O. Harassowitz, 1892b.

-. Jaina Onomasticon. Berlin 1893 (Manuscript Bound in Eight Volumes. Hamburg, Institut für Indologie und Tibetologie).

-. 'The Samachari-Satakam of Samayasundara and Pattavalis of the Anchala-Gachcha and other Gachchas (Revised with Additions by Ernst Leumann)'. The Indian Antiquary XXIII (1894) 169-183.

Leumann, Ernst. '[Biographical Note on Klatt].' In: Klatt (1894) 169, n.2. -. 'An Klatt geschickte Ergänzungen zum bibliographischen Index der Jaina-Literatur. 27 loose leaves.' In: Plutat (1998) 32.

Mālvaṇiyā, Dalsukh D. 'Śrī Loṅkāśāh nī ek Kṛti.' Svādhyāya 2, 1 (1963a) 50-82. -. 'Śrī Lokāśāh ane temnā Mat.' Svādhyāya 2, 2 (1963b) 143-155. -. 'Loṅkāśāh Mat kī Do Pothiyāṃ.' Muni Śrī Hajārīmal Smṛti Granth: Ed. Śobhācandra Bhārill, 184-188. Byāvar: Muni Śrī Hajārīmal Smṛti Granth Prakāśan Samiti, 1965.

Mehta, Mohan Lal & K. Rishabh Chandra. Prakrit Proper Names. Vol. I-II. Ahmedabad: L. D. Institute, 1970-1972.

Plutat, Birte (comp.). Catalogue of the Papers of Ernst Leumann in the Institute for the Culture and History of India and Tibet. University of Hamburg. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1998.

Rau, Wilhelm (ed.). Bilder 135 deutscher Indologen. Zweite erweiterte und verbesserte Auflage. Wiesbaden: Steiner Verlag, 1965/1982 (Glasenapp-Stiftung Band 23).

Turner, Ralph Lilley, A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages. London:

Oxford University Press, 1966. Reprint 1973.

Schubring, Walther. Die Lehre der Jainas. Nach den alten Quellen dargestellt. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter & Co., 1935. -. The Doctrine of the Jainas. Described after the Old Sources. Translated from the Revised German Edition by Wolfgang Beurlen. 3rd English Edition. 1962. Reprint, with three Indices, enlarged and expanded by Willem Bollée and Jayandra Soni, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas, 2000. -. Die Jaina-Handschriften der Preussischen Staatsbibliothek: Neuerwerbungen seit 1891. Unter redaktioneller Mitarbeit von Günther Weibgen. Leipzig: O. Harrassowitz, 1944.

Walker, Alexander (Colonel). Narratives of Mahrattah History and an Account of the Jeyn, or Shravaca Religion. India Office Library Mss. Eur. D.582, ca. 1807-1830. Weber, Albrecht F. 'Über den Kupakshakauçikāditya des Dharmasāgara. Streitschrift eines orthodoxen Jaina, vom Jahre 1573.' Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 37 (1882) 793-814. -. Verzeichniss der Sanskrit- und Prâkṛit-Handschriften der Königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin. Die Handschriften-Verzeichnisse der Königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin. Band 5.23. Berlin: A. Asher & Co., 1888 & 1892. -. 'Vorwort [15 October 1892].' In: Klatt (1892b) iii-iv.

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