Biographies Of Ṛṣabha And The Rise Of Śatruñjaya

Posted: 06.10.2016

Scholarly as well as popular discourse on Śatruñjaya, the most famous and important of Śvetāmbara pilgrimage sites, associate the sanctity of the site with the time of the first Tīrthaṅkara, Ṛṣabha or Ādinātha.[1] This association became firmly established since its inclusion in Jinabhadrasūri's pilgrimage handbook Vividhatīrthakalpa composed in 1333.[2] However, if we retrace the biography of Ṛṣabha in older sources, it is clear that this association did not always exist. In this paper, I examine accounts of Ṛṣabha's life, both from Śvetāmbara and Digambara authors, to determine the time, the environment and the way in which the connection between Śatruñjaya with Ṛṣabha developed.[3]


Being the first Tīrthaṅkara, biographies of Ṛṣabha or Ādinātha, abound.[4] The oldest life stories of Ṛṣabha are those from the more ancient strata of the Śvetāmbara Āgama. A first account of his life is found in the Kalpasūtra (210-227) dating from around the second or first century BCE. An important later, more developed canonical account is found in the Āvaśyakaniryukti (ca. 2nd-3rd c.).[5] Equally significant is the canonical version in the sixth Upāṅga called Jambūdvīpaprajñapti (pre-5th c.).[6]

More elaborate renderings of Ṛṣabha's life are found in texts concerning the Jain Universal History, compositions generally termed purāṇa or carita, which narrate the lives of the Śalākāpuruṣas or Mahā-puruṣas, "great men". Standard is a list of 63 Śalākā-puruṣas, which includes the 24 Tīrthaṅkaras, twelve Cakravartins ("world emperors"), and nine triads of a Baladeva, Vāsudeva and Prativāsudeva.[7] Complete accounts of the Jain Universal History, relating the biographies of all the Śalākā-puruṣas of the current time period, are called mahā-purāṇas.[8] The most important Digambara mahā-purāṇa is the encyclopaedic Ādi-purāṇa, "purāṇa of Ādinātha" of Jinasena, supplemented by the Uttara-purāṇa, "purāṇa of the later [Śalākā-puruṣas]" of his disciple Guṇabhadra (9th c.). About a century later the Digambara poet Puṣpadanta composed an Apabhraṃśa Mahāpurāṇu. The oldest available Śvetāmbara mahā-purāṇa is the Caüppaṇṇamahāpurisacariya, "biographies of the 54 great men", of Śīlāṅka (9th c.), composed in Māhārāṣṭrī Prakrit roughly contemporaneously with Jinasena's and Guṇabhadra's text. The best known and most authoritative Śvetāmbara mahā-purāṇa is undoubtedly Hemacandra's Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita, "biographies of the 63 Śalākā-puruṣas" (12th c.).

Aside from mahā-purāṇas, and purāṇas or caritas dealing specifically with Ṛṣabha, his biography is also found in purāṇic compositions where one would perhaps not expect them, namely the Jain versions of the Rāmāyaṇa, Mahābhārata and Harivaṃśapurāṇa. What is significant is that these represent the oldest Jain purāṇas and often predate the composition of the mahāpurāṇas. As an explicit counter-tradition, most Jain purāṇas strive to emulate the (theoretical) orthodox purāṇic model of the pañca-lakṣaṇa, five requisite subjects.[9] This explains why so many Jain purāṇic texts do not immediately commence the story after which they are named, but with a description of the universe and the division of time, as this parallels the lakṣaṇas sarga and pratisarga, creation and recreation of the hindu model. The time that we are now experiencing, and in which all the Śalākā-puruṣa biographies are situated, is a degenerative period (avasarpiṇī), at the beginning of which humans endured the best possible situation, a bhoga-bhūmi, "pleasure land", in which everything came provided for from wishing trees (kalpavṛkṣas), and in which there was no fear, no disease, etc. Gradually things became more unpleasant and eventually the wishing trees disappeared. At a certain point during this avasarpiṇī, people fell victim to evil deeds, and there arose a need for the institution of law and punishment. In due course there appeared a succession of Kulakaras, "patriarchs", parallels to the Manu's of the orthodox purāṇa-lakṣaṇa of manvantara, to educate the people on the changes going on around them.[10] The last of these Kulakaras, Nābhi, was the father of Ṛṣabha, linking the manvantara theme with the biography of the first Tīrthaṅkara.[11] The pañca-lakṣaṇa topic of vaṃśānucarita is found reproduced in the fact that Ṛṣabha, aside from being the first Tīrthaṅkara, is also the progenitor of the two traditional epic royal dynasties. Ṛṣabha himself is the first king of the Ikṣvāku (or solar) dynasty, whereas the Soma (or lunar, Hari) dynasty was founded by his grandson Somaprabha, son of Bāhubali.[12] Since Rāma is generally recognized as a significant descendant of the Ikṣvāku-vaṃśa, it makes sense that the biography of the dynasty's first king, Ṛṣabha, who is thus Rāma's direct forefather, be told in the Jain Rāmāyaṇas. The same rationale is behind the inclusion of Ṛṣabha's life story in the Jain Harivaṃśapurāṇas, Mahābhāratas and Pāṇḍavacaritas: as the grandfather of Somaprabha, he is the direct forefather to Kṛṣṇa and the Pāṇḍavas.

As a result the corpus of purāṇic Ṛṣabha biographies is vast and goes back to the earliest examples of Jain purāṇic literature. The oldest available text that refers to itself as a purāṇa is a Jain rendering of the Rāmāyaṇa, the Paümacariya in Māhārāṣṭrī Prakrit by the Śvetāmbara Vimalasūri, who probably lived in the fifth century or some centuries earlier.[13] The Padmapurāṇa (completed in 678) by the Digambara Raviṣeṇa is an expanded Sanskrit translation of Vimalasūri's poem. The oldest surviving Harivaṃśapurāṇa was composed by the Digambara Jinasena Punnāṭa (completed in 783) in Sanskrit. The Vasudevahiṇḍi of the Śvetāmbara Saṅghadāsa, like the Paümacariya in Māhārāṣṭrī and also dating from the fifth century at the latest, is somewhat of an outsider. Though it focuses on material included in the Jain Harivaṃśa tradition, it does not follow the standard pattern of a Jain purāṇas commencing with the biography of Ṛṣabha, but rather includes it in the middle of the story as a secondary narrative told by the grandmother of one of the ladies Vasudeva marries.[14] All of these contain a purāṇic Ṛṣabha biography earlier than any mahāpurāṇa.


As mentioned previously, with the degeneration of time at a certain point during this avasarpiṇī a succession of Kulakaras was born to instruct the people.[16] The last Kulakara Nābhi and his beautiful wife Marudevī (interchangeable with Marudevā in many compositions) were destined to become the parents of the first Tīrthaṅkara. Several narratives here include an account of the previous incarnations of Ṛṣabha.[17] The birth of an extraordinary being from Marudevī is announced by a number of miraculous phenomena, variously described by different authors, such as Kubera producing a rain of gems even before the descent into the womb.[18] Like in all the Tīrthaṅkara biographies, the most significant prenatal event is the sequence of dreams seen by Marudevī, fourteen, according to the Śvetāmbara sources, or sixteen, according to the Digambara texts. The shorter, Śvetāmbara list of dreams is: 1. a (white) bull, 2. an elephant (sometimes identified as Airāvata), 3. a lion, 4. the goddess Lakṣmī, 5. a garland (sometimes two), 6. the moon, 7. the sun, 8. a banner, 9. a (golden) pitcher (sometimes two), 10. a pond, 11. an ocean, 12. a heavenly palace (vimāna), 13. a heap of gems, 14. a (smokeless) fire.[19] The Digambara sources replace the banner with two fish, and add a throne and a Nāga palace. Moreover according to the Digambaras the bull comes second, after the elephant.[20] The dreams are initially explained by Nābhi, sometimes with further clarification from one of the Indras.[21] In due course Marudevī gives birth to a son.[22] When the gods become aware of the birth of a new Tīrthaṅkara, they immediately set out to come and perform the birth consecration (janmābhiṣeka). After putting Marudevī to sleep by way of a spell and placing an illusory child with her, Śakra, the Indra of Saudharma heaven, takes the newborn to Mount Meru, where he and the other gods bathe him with water from the Milkocean on the rock Pāṇḍuśilā (variants: (Ati)pāṇḍukakambalā, Pāṇḍukambalā). Śakra then adorns the child with jewels and decorations and places him back with his mother.[23] The boy is named Ṛṣabha or Vṛṣabha, "the excellent one" or "the bull".[24] He grows up in the company of divine attendants sent by Indra.[25] In due course, he marries two women, Sunandā and Sumaṅgalā, both of whom soon give birth to children, including Bharata, Bāhubali and two daughters Brāhmī and Sundarī.[26] Due to the general deterioration in the avasarpiṇī the people are struggling, and seek the help of Ṛṣabha, who teaches them how to prepare food, skills leading to professions, etc. and creates a division of categories, initiating the societal division into castes. He teaches Brāhmī how to write and Sundarī how to do arithmetic, and instructs Bharata and Bāhubali in the arts and sciences. Ṛṣabha himself is consecrated as their king in a ceremony lead by the gods.[27] After a long and fruitful reign, Ṛṣabha becomes disgusted with the material world and decides to renounce it, upon which the Laukāntika gods come to applaud and encourage him.[28] He distributes his land and possessions among his sons and relatives. Indra and the other gods arrive for the initiation ceremony.[29] He mounts a divine palanquin, Sudarśanā, is carried around in procession, and taken to a park Siddhārtha.[30] After removing his attire, he pulls out his hair in five fistfuls.[31] Four thousand other kings also renounce the material world.[32] Thereupon Ṛṣabha starts his life as an ascetic, without taking any food or water. The other renunciant are unable to bear the hunger and thirst and soon start eating roots.[33] One day Nami and Vinami, the young sons of Kaccha and Mahākaccha, appear before Ṛṣabha to ask him for land, since they had been sent away at the time when Ṛṣabha gave away his territory. When Ṛṣabha does not answer, they stay near him to serve him. Dharaṇendra, the lord of the Nāgas, appears and gives them the ruler ship over the Vidyādharas of the Vaitāḍhya mountains, as well as some vidyā's, a kind of magical power.[34] Thereafter Ṛṣabha continues his meditation, and after a year of not having eaten, he roams around and reaches the city of Gajapura, where his fast is broken by the sugarcane juice given by prince Śreyāṃsa, who had remembered from a previous birth that ascetics need to receive food, thereby initiating the giving of alms.[35] Ṛṣabha continues to roam and perform austerities, and after one thousand years, he reaches a park Śakaṭamukha near the city of Purimatāla, where he settles under a banyan tree, begins to meditate and attains kevala-jñāna.[36] The gods arrive and construct a samavasaraṇa.[37] Ṛṣabhasena (or Vṛṣabhasena) becomes the first of 84 disciples, Gaṇadharas, and head of the monastic community. Ṛṣabha's daughter Brāhmī becomes the first nun and a number of other men and women renounce the world or become members of the lay community.[38] After delivering a sermon, Ṛṣabha sets out to roam the land in the company of his followers.[39] As the kevala of Ṛṣabha coincided with Bharata's attainment of the divine cakra, "discus", most texts hereafter give an account of Bharata's conquest of the six parts of Bhārata (digvijaya), followed by the fight with his brother Bāhubali who subsequently renounces the material world.[40] On multiple occasions, Bharata visits the samavasaraṇas of Ṛṣabha on Mount Aṣṭāpada, where he hears sermons on diverse subjects.[41] During an ultimate stay on Mount Aṣṭāpada, Ṛṣabha, together with ten thousand sages commences his final meditation and fast and dies, attaining eternal emancipation.[42] Bharata and the gods come to perform the funerary rites.[43]


With one exception, none of the Ṛṣabha biographies examined above, make any reference to Śatruñjaya. Nevertheless, the renowned Vividhatīrthakalpa of Jinaprabhasūri, a guidebook to Śvetāmbara pilgrimage sites, is clear about its association. The Śatruñjayakalpa, the first kalpa in this composition, begins with an invocation of Ṛṣabha (Nābheya, son of Nābhi), to whom it is said a temple on top of the mountain is dedicated. The multiple other names of Śatruñjaya are listed, one of which, Puṇḍarīka, is explained as deriving from the name of an ascetic who attained liberation there together with five crores of other ascetics (v. 4). There is no further explanation who this Puṇḍarīka was, or when he lived. Later we learn of images that were installed in his honour (v. 83-84, 118). The text then mentions that countless great seers, beginning with Ṛṣabhasena, held assembly there (v. 14). Ṛṣabhasena is known in all the biographies examined as the first Gaṇadhara of Ṛṣabha, described by Śvetāmbara sources as the son of Bharata - though not explicitly the oldest - and by Digambara sources as a brother of Bharata. He is not named again, though later it is said that the first Gaṇadhara of the first Jina, the first son of the first Cakravartin - that is Ṛṣabhasena - was the first to attain salvation on Mount Śatruñjaya (v. 22). He was followed by many kings from the Ikṣvāku and Vṛṣṇi (lunar) dynasties (v. 85), among whom Ṛṣabha's relatives, Nami and Vinami (v. 23), and the Pāṇḍavas (v. 30, 86), who in Jain Universal History lived at the time of Tīrthaṅkara Nemi. The text also claims that all the Tīrthaṅkaras, except Nemi, held a sermon on Mount Śatruñjaya (v. 16).

An account linking Śatruñjaya with the time of Ṛṣabha, earlier than the Vividhatīrthakalpa, is found in the Sārāvalī, one of the canonical Prakīrṇaka texts, estimated to date from the eleventh century (Dundas 2002: 88). Far more frequently than Śatruñjaya, this text uses the name Puṇḍarīka to refer to the mountain, named after Puṇḍarīka, said to be the son of Bharata and grandson of Ṛṣabha (v. 17). Puṇḍarīka had become a mendicant at the time of Ṛṣabha's enlightenment, and was sent by Ṛṣabha himself to Saurāṣṭra to a hill to preach and ultimately attain salvation there (v. 18-43). Like the Vividhatīrthakalpa it also names Nami and Vinami, kings of the Ikṣvāku and Soma dynasties, and the Pāṇḍavas as having attained liberation there (v. 50-53). There is no mention of the first Gaṇadhara named Ṛṣabhasena in this text.

The earliest purāṇic account linking Ṛṣabha with Śatruñjaya - and the exception to all the texts discussed previously - is the biography of Ṛṣabha in Hemacandra Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita, probably composed soon after the Sārāvalī and seemingly influenced by it. It moreover gives further information on the identity of Puṇḍarīka. Like in most other texts, the description of Ṛṣabha's kevala is followed by the foundation of the tīrtha, the fourfold Jain community of monks, nuns, laymen and –women, and the installation of the Gaṇadharas. At this point, Hemacandra introduced Ṛṣabhasena, a son of Bharata (1.3.641-7, tr. Johnson 1931, vol. 1: 208), who requests to be initiated. Ṛṣabha initiates him, together with 499 other sons of Bharata and 70 grandsons, naming only Bharata's son Marīci explicitly (1.3.649). The text then names Brāhmī as renouncing the world (1.3.650), implying that she and Ṛṣabhasena became the first members of the female and male mendicant community. Sundarī is said to have become the first laywoman (1.3.651), and Bharata himself "adopted layman ship", implying him to be the first member and leader of the laymen community (1.3.652). A few verses later Hemacandra recapulitates, listing the four parts of the community, that is, monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen, and their leaders or first members: "Sādhus, Puṇḍarīka, etc.; Sādhvīs with Brāhmī at their head; laymen, Bharata, etc.; and laywomen with Sundarī at their head – this became the rule of the fourfold congregation at that time and continues even today – the best house of dharma" (tr. Johnson 1931, vol. 1: 209).[44] These verses do not name Ṛṣabhasena, but Puṇḍarīka, as the first monk, suggesting that Ṛṣabhasena and Puṇḍarīka may be one and the same person. Immediately thereafter (1.3.657), Hemacandra reverts back to the name Ṛṣabhasena, when he describes how 84 of the monks, "Ṛṣabhasena and others" (vratinām ṛṣabhasenaprabhṛtīnā') became Gaṇadharas and were taught the scriptures. Some verses further down (1.3.677) Ṛṣabhasena is again named as the first of the Gaṇadharas. Hereafter he is not mentioned for several chapters. After itinerant periods with at least three visits to Mount Aṣṭāpada for samavasaraṇas, Hemacandra uniquely inserts an episode of about sixty verses where Ṛṣabha visits Mount Śatruñjaya. At the commencement of this episode, the first Gaṇadhara is mentioned again, though his name here is not Ṛṣabhasena, but Puṇḍarīka, confirming the identity of the two in Hemacandra's text: "Surrounded by Puṇḍarīka and the other gaṇadharas, the Lord went purifying the earth under pretext of wandering" (tr. Johnson 1931, vol 1: 353).[45] From here on the text only speaks of Puṇḍarīka, no longer of Ṛṣabhasena, as the first Gaṇadhara. Hemacandra then lists the places which Ṛṣabha "purifies" with his presence (392-5), until he reached Śatruñjaya in the land of the Saurāṣṭras. Hemacandra describes Mount Śatruñjaya in twenty verses (396-416), taking the portrayal in the Sārāvalī as his basis and enhancing it with poetic embellishments. Like in Sārāvalī 33, Hemacandra commences with a description of the silver, gold and gemstones present on Śatruñjaya (1.6.396-7), betraying the same fascination with alchemy which was developed further in later texts such as the Vividhatīrthakalpa (see Granoff 1999). Similar to Sārāvalī 34-36, Hemacandra lists a great number of trees flourishing on Śatruñjaya.[46] True to the literary genre of mahākāvya of his composition, he includes some idyllic portraits of Saurāṣṭran women, picking mangoes and singing songs (1.6.402), parties of Śabara women drinking wine (1.6.406), coconuts crushed by traveller caravans (1.6.414), etc. Like Sārāvalī 39 he concludes his description by stating the measurements of the mountain: fifty yojanas in circumference at its base, ten at its peak and eight yojanas high. Ṛṣabha ascends the mountain and enters the samavasaraṇa, constructed there by the gods. After a three-hour sermon, Puṇḍarīka, again named as Ṛṣabha's supreme Gaṇadhara (gaṇadharāgraī3, 1.6.421), seats himself on Ṛṣabha's foot stool and himself delivers a sermon on the Jain dharma. After some time, Ṛṣabha left to wander elsewhere, instructing Puṇḍarīka to stay on Śatruñjaya: "You remain here on the mountain, surrounded by crores of Munis. Here your omniscience and that of the followers will appear soon from the power of the place. (1.6.426b427, tr. Johnson 1931, vol 1: 356)". The "power of the place" (kṣetraprabhāva 1.6.433) is again stressed in the words of Puṇḍarīka, when he instructs his crores of followers to engage in a fast until death. In due course, all attain kevala and liberation, and the gods come from heaven to celebrate this (1.6.429-445).[47] Hemacandra concludes: "Just as the master, the Blessed Ṛṣabha, was the first Tīrthakṛt, so Mt. Śatruñjaya became the first tīrtha" (1.6.446, Johnson 1931, vol. 1: 357). He then describes how Bharata made a shrine on Mount Śatruñjaya, where he installed icons of Ṛṣabha and Puṇḍarīka. (1.6.448-449), initiating a long tradition of building activity.[48] Hemacandra refers to Śatuñjaya only once more under the name of Mount Vimala, as the place where the Pāṇḍavas attain salvation (8.12.127). Compared to Hemacandra's account, the one of the Vividhatīrthakalpa is greatly amplified. Its claim that all the Tīrthaṅkaras, except Nemi, preached there, is nowhere substantiated in the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita. Moreover, it mentions that Bharata built no less than twenty-three temples there, in addition to one built for Marudevī by Bāhubali. Jinabhadra's description is different from that in the Sārāvalī and Hemacandra's text, and excludes the list of trees growing there, though there is a reference to the mines of quicksilver and gems and to herbs (v. 9) on the mountain, and the measurements are the same (v. 13).

Hemacandra's inclusion of this description of Mount Śatruñjaya is exceptional. Like most of the other Ṛṣabha biographies, the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita too emphasizes Mount Aṣṭāpada as the single most significant place associated with Ṛṣabha, mentioning at least four individual visits and samavasaraṇas there between his itinerant periods. Though other places visited by Ṛṣabha after he became a kevalin are listed by Hemacandra and other authors, Mount Aṣṭāpada appears to have been the only place where he sermoned to audiences of gods, kings, etc., with the exception of Mount Śatruñjaya in the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita.[49]

Later Śvetāmbara texts develop the association between Ṛṣabha and Śatruñjaya even further, a prime example being the Śatruñjayamāhātmya by Dhaneśvarasūri, dating from the fourteenth century at the earliest.[50] This text, which emulates the hindu purāṇic genre of the māhātmya, glorifying, among others, sacred sites, consists of narratives, mostly from Jain Universal History, connected with Śatruñjaya. Of its fourteen chapters, six deal with Ṛṣabha or his immediate descendents. The composition opens by paying homage to the Tīrthaṅkaras Ṛṣabha, Śānti, Nemi, Pārśva and Mahāvīra, after which the author praises the Gaṇadhara Puṇḍarīka, who, on Ṛṣabha's orders, is said to have composed the first māhātmya on Śatruñjaya consisting of one hundred thousand lines (pāda). Dhaneśvarasūri's version is said to be based on a summary of this original made by Mahāvīra's Gaṇadhara Sudharma (1.1-15). These statements accord the highest authority to the Gaṇadhara Puṇḍarīka. The narrative setting is that of a visit by Mahāvīra to Śatruñjaya, where the Indra of Saudharma enquires about the history, etc. of the site (1.26-286). The third chapter commences the biographies of Ṛṣabha and his relatives with the appearance of the Kulakaras, Ṛṣabha's birth, consecration as king, his renunciation and kevala, as well as Bharata's conquest, and the renunciation of his brothers. On the occasion of Ṛṣabha's kevala and the installation of the four parts of the community and the Gaṇadharas, the first Gaṇadhara is initially named Ṛṣabhasena (3.256), some verses later (3.269) referred to as Puṇḍarīka, and then again named Ṛṣabhasena (3.273), apparently following Hemacandra's text closely.[51]  The fourth chapter describes the battle between Bharata and Bāhubali, and Bharata's visit to Śatruñjaya. The fifth chapter elaborates on Bharata's pilgrimages and building activity on Śatruñjaya and other sacred sites. The sixth chapter portrays the death of Ṛṣabha and Bharata on Mount Aṣṭāpada, and the biography of Bharata's son and successor Sūryayaśas. The seventh chapter closes the stories of Ṛṣabha and his direct descendents with an the account of two grandsons of Ṛṣabha, Drāviḍa and Vālikhilla, who undertook pilgrimages to Śatruñjaya.[52]


Śatruñjaya hardly finds any mention in the earlier Śvetāmbara canonical texts.[53] The only attestation I could retrace was to the sixth Aṅga, the 7āyādhammakahāo (Settujja in sūtra 130), where it is named as the site of the final liberation of the Pāṇḍavas. Śatruñjaya is moreover not entirely absent from the early Jaina purāṇas either, albeit without any connection to Ṛṣabha. Purāṇic poets, both Digambara and Śvetāmbara, from before the eleventh century, such as Guṇabhadra (9th c.), Jinasena Punnāṭa (8th c.) and Śīlāṅka (9th c.), all follow 7āyādhammakahāo in naming Mount Śatruñjaya as the site where the Pāṇḍavas from the Jaina version of the Mahābhārata meet their end.[54] Because these characters are not considered true Śalākā-puruṣas, the poets do not a lot many words to the description of this site or of the event. After the Śvetāmbaras began to associate Mount Śatruñjaya with Ṛṣabha from about the eleventh century onwards, for Digambaras it simply remained the site where these Pāṇḍavas attained liberation. As such for Digambaras too it is still a siddha-kṣetra, "place of final liberation", and therefore worthy of respect.

The history of the rise to significance of Mount Śatruñjaya as a sacred site runs parallel to the additions and changes in the Śvetāmbara accounts of the Ṛṣabha story. Despite the references to a sacred mountain Śatruñjaya before the tenth century mentioned above, the oldest (surviving) inscription on the site dates from the year 1006, and is found on an icon representing Puṇḍarīka, located near the main Ādīśvara temple (Dundas 2002: 223). Around the same time, from about the eleventh century onwards, significant changes occur in Śvetāmbara Ṛṣabha biographies, beginning with the Sārāvalī, and with Hemacandra's Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita as most authoritative representative. These texts add visits and sermons of Ṛṣabha on Śatruñjaya and describe how his chief Gaṇadhara, who is renamed Puṇḍarīka, attains liberation there, granting the secondary name Puṇḍarīka to the site. None of the earlier biographies of Ṛṣabha mention Puṇḍarīka, but instead agree on Ṛṣabhasena or Vṛṣabhasena as the name of Ṛṣabha's first Gaṇadhara. Digambara accounts did not undergo this change, both regarding the name of Ṛṣabha's Gaṇadhara as Ṛṣabhasena and the sacredness of Mount Śatruñjaya as the place on which the Pāṇḍavas attained liberation, and which, as far as they are concerned was never visited by Ṛṣabha.


Primary sources (editions and translations)

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