Jain Studies And Science ► Theory Of Mattereals And Jain Philosophy ► Matter (Pudgal)

Posted: 26.02.2009

According to Mahapragya, word 'Pudgal', as found in Jain literature is loosely equivalent to the scientific term 'matter'. It has two parts pud and gala. The first part pud means 'to combine' and second part gala means 'to dissociate'. So the etymological meaning of pudgala is that mattereal which undergoes modifications by combination and dissociation. The definition is significant because these processes of combination and dissociation do not occur in the other five mattereals.

Succinctly, Pudgal means tangible entity having four qualities of touch, taste, hue (colour) and odour. These qualities provide shape to a Pudgal. Pudgal can be divided to achieve aparam-anu which is further indivisible. Pudgal in its largest form is called Achita Mahaskandh- an omnipresent inanimate entity. However, such Mahaskandh manifests itself in the rare of the rarest circumstances and that too for a few moments. As this event is singular to the Jains, it needs elaboration.

1. Inanimate Mahaskandh

Inanimate Mahaskandh is a form of Pudgal which spreads throughout the universe. This has been described in the process of kevali-samudghat, a phenomenon exclusively credited to the Jains. Keval-samudghat happens only to those liberating souls who are left with little life span and the period required for emancipation of karmic matter is relatively more. In such singularly abnormal cases following sequence of events takes place -

  1. The soul expands in the entire universe in such a way that each pradesh (smallest unit) of soul penetrates in the each pradesh of Universal space.
  2. Simultaneously, the existing karmic pudgals also inflate and get dissociated from the soul permanently.
  3. Unlike other religions where it is said that the liberated soul amalgamates with God, Jains believe that the soul squeezes back to his normal size and re-enters the body leaving behind the network karmic pudgals in the universe as a snake sheds its slough. This left behind network of karmic pudgals is called inanimate Mahaskandh.
  4. The next moment, the liberated soul migrates to the designated abode of Siddha.

It is the ingenuity of Jainism that it assigns equal capabilities of expansion to both the vigorous soul as well as the inanimate matter. It also accepts the existence of infinite number of individual liberated souls instead of all souls integrating with ONE Paramatma. The physical process of Kevali-Samundghat, as described by Mahapragya is narrated in the chapter of'motion' in this book. Thus from the above description it is apparent that the Mahaskandh formation is a 'happening' during the Kevali-Samundghat. In scientific terms, it may be called 'the singularity'.

1.1. Singularity

The theory of Big-Bang is prevalent in the scientific world to explain the formation of universe. In it, scientific term - singularity - has striking similarity with the process of Kevali-Samundghat. Amazing conditions of zero volume, infinite temperature and density are believed to exist prior to the universe formation. In the initial moments of Big Bang, the temperature is said to be lowered to 10'° "Cwithin a fraction of a second, and in next few seconds the particles and antiparticles formed to give shape to the universe. According to Einstein, Big-Bang and Big Crunch, both are singularities where no laws of physical sciences are applicable. He has called this phenomenon as a singularity of space-time.

There seems to be a similarity between the process of Kevali-Samudghat and the conditions of creation of universe in that both the events are so rapid that a few laws of physical sciences are not applicable to them. Therefore, it appears to be correct to accept the events of Kevali-Samudghat as singularity in which a soul expands in the entire universe in the smallest possible time. The Big Bang theory also propounds that in a few seconds a mammoth universe takes form from near zero volume. However, Einstein and Jains differ in their respective theories of singularities. While Einstein proclaimed that no laws of physics are applicable during these unique moments, Jains believe that all the laws remain intact and effective except that the speed barrier of 1 ight is broken. Jain literature mentions that the singularity takes place due to infinite speed (modern science rules out any object acquiring speeds greater than the speed of light which is 3x108 m/sec.) with which the soul travels resulting in zero time spent in covering vast universal distances. This reasoning is entirely based on laws of physics and mathematics where the inverse relation of zero and infinite is well recognised.

Having got acquainted with the enormous form of pudgal, we shall now discuss the character of pudgals in their finest form of param-anu.

2. Atomic Theory

Mahapragya has put the atomic theory in historical perspective. Indian Philosopher Kannad and Western Philosopher Democritus have been widely considered as the pioneers of particle theory. Democritus represented the era of 460-374BC. The evolution of Kannad's ' Vaishashik Sutra' is considered to be around 1st century AD. Whereas, the period of Lord Mahavira is 599-527BC. Mahavira's Atomic theory precedes those of Kannad's and Democritus', but the historians of the philosophy have ignored this fact. The reason is neither the bias nor the discrimination; it is perhaps the unavailability of Jain literature and lack of its serious study. Both Jain philosophy and Vaishashik philosophy agree to the fact that the param-anu is indivisible. But they disagree about the adjectival attributes of the param-anu. In Jain philosophy, all param-anu are identical as far as their physical form is concerned. But their classification is possible on the basis of various attributes (touch, taste, hue and odour) they possess. Since the extent of these attributes may vary from one unit to infinite units, Jains believe that there are infinite such permutations and combinations possible. It must be observed that the Atomic theory is just a part of whole theory of pudgals.

2.1. Sparsh (Touches) of Pudgal

Classification of Pudgals, as available in Jain scriptures, is very intricate. The first and foremost classification is in terms of the complexity of the composition. Accordingly, the available classification is -

  1. Param-anu or Dion - As stated earlier, it is the smallest part of a pudgal which is further indivisible. These dions can possess two touches (sparsh) out of the basic four; positive-negative (Snigdh-Ruksha) and hot-cold (Ushna-Sheit). Author has carefully christened them as 'dion' by their virtue of having two touches. Though these dions could be of infinite varieties depending upon the qualities they possess, however, they can be sub-categorised in four broad types depending on which two touches they inherit out of the four available -
    • Type1 - combination of positive & hot
    • Type2 - combination of positive & cold
    • Type3 - combination of negative & hot
    • Type4 - combination of negative & cold

    It must be noted here that there is a restriction on having both the touches of same pair. Another important observation is that all the four broad categories mentioned above have three other attributes, namely, taste, hue and odour. Infinite varieties of dions stem out of the fact that the quantity of the attributes in them may range from one unit to infinite units.

  2. Bahu-Pradeshi Skandh or Quadons - These pudgals are one step higher in the hierarchy. Two or more dions combine to form 'multi-touch clusters' typically named as Bahu-Pradeshi Skandh in the Jain literatures. These clusters, now, can possess all the four touches thus are christened as quadons. These quadons, since are made up of multiple dions, have all the four touches, namely, positive-negative and hot-cold. Quadons could comprise a minimum of two up to a maximum of infinite dions. When there are infinite dions joining together, it is known as 'Anant-Pradeshi Skandh'. These quadons with infinite dions again come together to constitute an entity which is the first step of migration from micro towards macro world.
  3. Anant-Anant-Pradeshi Skandh or Octons - From this state onwards, the state of pudgal is such that it possesses eight touches - four primary ones, positive-negative and hot-cold, and four secondary touches namely, light-heavy and soft-hard. Out of the four secondary touches, the former two are responsible for the constitution of mass of the octons. It, thus, turns out that the Jains do not consider mass as the primary property of a pudgal, but it manifests only after the formation of octons from the relatively massless quadons and dions.

2.2. Mass of Pudgals

This brings us to the second method of classification applicable to the pudgals based on mass-

  1. Sukshma (Micro) - As far as dions and quadons are concerned, they do not have light-heavy attributes, thus are mass-less. They are so subtle that they do not obey certain principles of physics. One important example is that they are capable of attaining infinite speeds far beyond the physical limit of speed of light.

    After treating mass as essential quality of matter, even science is convinced that certain facts can be explained only if massless particles are treated as realities. Scientists are already discussing some such particles like photons, gravitons and gluons. Once the scientists are able to work out the entire set of physical laws applicable to such mass-less particles, it will revolutionise the way we understand physics. Hopefully, many enigmatic questions will be answered then.

  2. Badar (Macro) - When the pudgals achieve their third state of octons, they start manifesting mass. From this stage onwards, they come in the realm of human perceptions and predictions. Octons are, therefore, referred to as Vyavaharic parmanu also. In this state, they become comparable to the atoms as known to the modern science.

2.3.  Pudgals and Qualities of Matter

The third classification of pudgals is on the basis of the quality they impart to other pudgals to which they are attached. It is a very interesting Jain doctrine that the qualities of matter like Big-Small, Micro-Macro, Light-Heavy, Long-Short, Integrated-Fragmented, Radiant-Dark, Hot-Cold etc are nothing but the types of pudgals only. Besides, these pudgals may vary in shape also. To consider all substances and all properties as pudgals, indicates the deep insight of Jain philosophical knowledge.

2.4.  Pudgals and Association with Soul

A fourth classification is based on the various groups of octons which remain attached to the jiva (soul). In Jain Philosophy, there're eight sets of quadons and octons which are related to the bio -

  1. Set of Octons forming mortal body (Audarika Vargana)
  2. Set of Octons forming transformational body {Vaikriya Vargana)
  3. Set of Octons forming projectile body (Aharaka Vargana)
  4. Set of Octons & Quadons forming respiration (Swasoswas Vargana)
  5. Set of Quadons forming thought (Vachna Vargana)
  6. Set of Quadons forming Mind (Mana Vargana)
  7. Set of Quadons forming Radiance (Taijasa Vargana)
  8. Set of Quadons forming Karmic body (Karmic Vargana)

In Jain philosophy the relation of jiva i.e. soul and substance has been elaborately discussed. Whereas, in Vaishashik philosophy, indivisible param-anu is classified in four types only, viz.

  • Earthy
  • Aquatic
  • Irradiating
  • Aerial

This difference in classifications has given rise to Atomic Theory which is unique to the Jain school of thought.

3. Qualities of Pudgals and Sensory Perception

As is commonly known, the acquisition of information by the humans is sharply departmentalised. All the five sensory organs perform only specified tasks which are seldom interchangeable. Eyes have limits of distance and can respond to frequencies in the visible spectrum only. Ears are tuned to react to the audible frequencies between 20 to 20,000 Hertz only. They are deaf to all the under-tones and over-tones. Similarly our somatic sensation consists of the various sensory receptors that trigger the experiences of touch like, pressure, temperature, pain (including itch and tickle), and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively called proprioception). Tongue too responds to only five basic tastes - bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and savoury. Through nose we perceive odours by the sense of olfaction. Odours are also called smells, which can refer to both pleasant and unpleasant odours like, fragrance, scent or aroma, stench and stink.

Sensing of light and sound is based on vibrations at different frequencies, whereas taste and smell are chemical processes. The touch is a very complex feeling of our skin which is the largest organ of our body. All these look very specialised processes but strangely has one basic process in common.

Scientists today have found a startling fact. All the sensory organs are nothing but transducers which convert the stimulii into electrical impulses. These electrical signals travel up to the brain through an intricate mechanism of neurons and nerves where they are deciphered by the mind. This opens up interesting possibilities. In one experiment, doctors sent simulated electrical impulses directly to the brain through elctrodes fitted on the skull. The subject felt pain and ecstacy as the signals were manipulated.

3.1. Entire body an Integrated Sensory Organ (Karan)

Ancient Jain Acharyas have mentioned a unique phenomenon -Sabhinnastrotolabdhi - where the bio's entire body can be deployed as an integrated sensory organ. A bio, having attained such a maverick capability can see and taste from skin. The division of five senses within our organs collapses and it is said that the body as a whole becomes 'Karan' Can such a possibility exist? Can it be explained scientifically?

For sake of understanding this phenomenon, let us analyse the process of listening. The sound waves are received by the entire body including our ears. Ears have a specialised membrane which acts as a transducer and converts sound frequencies into electrical signal and send them to the brain. Similar action takes place in the entire body as the neurons and nerves are present in the entire body. The only difference is that the signal-to-noise ratio (intensity) of impulses is high within the ears, so brain captures those signals faster and better. For a deaf, if such a high intensity signal is absent, mind can be trained to filter the weak signals received from the skin and bones and can still listen to the sound.

Extending the argument, we can say that the light and odour encounter our entire body and not just eyes or nose. The signals are generated in the entire body but have high concentration in the eyes and nose respectively. However, if high intensity signals from the specified organs are absent, mind itself can amplify the weak signals available from the entire body. In a recent widely reported incident, a woman was able to recognise various colours simply by touching even when her eyes were blind-folded.

So, if the entire body can be trained to act as an antenna and the mind can be taught to amplify the signals captured by that antenna, Sabhinnastrotolabdhi can be attained.

4. Pudgal and Time-state

We know that the basic properties of pudgals are association and dissociation. But how fast or slow it happens or why it happens is a mystery. The fastest it can associate or dissociate is within a minimum period of one moment and in the slowest mode it can consume a maximum of infinite time. According to this Agamic statement, Mahapragya believes that the speech-pudgals of Lord Mahavira can be safely available because the sound waves are material and can remain in the unchanged form for an infinite time. Scientists are also busy looking for those apparatus with which those words assimilated in the space through which ancient music and sounds can be captured and recreated.

According to Mahapragya, word 'Pudgal', as found in Jain literature is loosely equivalent to the scientific term 'matter'. It has two parts pud and gala. The first part pud means 'to combine' and second part gala means 'to dissociate'. So the etymological meaning of pudgala is that mattereal which undergoes modifications by combination and dissociation. The definition is significant because these processes of combination and dissociation do not occur in the other five mattereals.

Succinctly, Pudgal means tangible entity having four qualities of touch, taste, hue (colour) and odour. These qualities provide shape to a Pudgal. Pudgal can be divided to achieve aparam-anu which is further indivisible. Pudgal in its largest form is called Achita Mahaskandh- an omnipresent inanimate entity. However, such Mahaskandh manifests itself in the rare of the rarest circumstances and that too for a few moments. As this event is singular to the Jains, it needs elaboration.

1. Inanimate Mahaskandh

Inanimate Mahaskandh is a form of Pudgal which spreads throughout the universe. This has been described in the process of kevali-samudghat, a phenomenon exclusively credited to the Jains. Keval-samudghat happens only to those liberating souls who are left with little life span and the period required for emancipation of karmic matter is relatively more. In such singularly abnormal cases following sequence of events takes place -

  1. The soul expands in the entire universe in such a way that each pradesh (smallest unit) of soul penetrates in the each pradesh of Universal space.
  2. Simultaneously, the existing karmic pudgals also inflate and get dissociated from the soul permanently.
  3. Unlike other religions where it is said that the liberated soul amalgamates with God, Jains believe that the soul squeezes back to his normal size and re-enters the body leaving behind the network karmic pudgals in the universe as a snake sheds its slough. This left behind network of karmic pudgals is called inanimate Mahaskandh.
  4. The next moment, the liberated soul migrates to the designated abode of Siddha.

It is the ingenuity of Jainism that it assigns equal capabilities of expansion to both the vigorous soul as well as the inanimate matter. It also accepts the existence of infinite number of individual liberated souls instead of all souls integrating with ONE Paramatma. The physical process of Kevali-Samundghat, as described by Mahapragya is narrated in the chapter of'motion' in this book. Thus from the above description it is apparent that the Mahaskandh formation is a 'happening' during the Kevali-Samundghat. In scientific terms, it may be called 'the singularity'.

1.1. Singularity

The theory of Big-Bang is prevalent in the scientific world to explain the formation of universe. In it, scientific term - singularity - has striking similarity with the process of Kevali-Samundghat. Amazing conditions of zero volume, infinite temperature and density are believed to exist prior to the universe formation. In the initial moments of Big Bang, the temperature is said to be lowered to 10'° "Cwithin a fraction of a second, and in next few seconds the particles and antiparticles formed to give shape to the universe. According to Einstein, Big-Bang and Big Crunch, both are singularities where no laws of physical sciences are applicable. He has called this phenomenon as a singularity of space-time.

There seems to be a similarity between the process of Kevali-Samudghat and the conditions of creation of universe in that both the events are so rapid that a few laws of physical sciences are not applicable to them. Therefore, it appears to be correct to accept the events of Kevali-Samudghat as singularity in which a soul expands in the entire universe in the smallest possible time. The Big Bang theory also propounds that in a few seconds a mammoth universe takes form from near zero volume. However, Einstein and Jains differ in their respective theories of singularities. While Einstein proclaimed that no laws of physics are applicable during these unique moments, Jains believe that all the laws remain intact and effective except that the speed barrier of 1 ight is broken. Jain literature mentions that the singularity takes place due to infinite speed (modern science rules out any object acquiring speeds greater than the speed of light which is 3x108 m/sec.) with which the soul travels resulting in zero time spent in covering vast universal distances. This reasoning is entirely based on laws of physics and mathematics where the inverse relation of zero and infinite is well recognised.

Having got acquainted with the enormous form of pudgal, we shall now discuss the character of pudgals in their finest form of param-anu.

2. Atomic Theory

Mahapragya has put the atomic theory in historical perspective. Indian Philosopher Kannad and Western Philosopher Democritus have been widely considered as the pioneers of particle theory. Democritus represented the era of 460-374BC. The evolution of Kannad's ' Vaishashik Sutra' is considered to be around 1st century AD. Whereas, the period of Lord Mahavira is 599-527BC. Mahavira's Atomic theory precedes those of Kannad's and Democritus', but the historians of the philosophy have ignored this fact. The reason is neither the bias nor the discrimination; it is perhaps the unavailability of Jain literature and lack of its serious study. Both Jain philosophy and Vaishashik philosophy agree to the fact that the param-anu is indivisible. But they disagree about the adjectival attributes of the param-anu. In Jain philosophy, all param-anu are identical as far as their physical form is concerned. But their classification is possible on the basis of various attributes (touch, taste, hue and odour) they possess. Since the extent of these attributes may vary from one unit to infinite units, Jains believe that there are infinite such permutations and combinations possible. It must be observed that the Atomic theory is just a part of whole theory of pudgals.

2.1. Sparsh (Touches) of Pudgal

Classification of Pudgals, as available in Jain scriptures, is very intricate. The first and foremost classification is in terms of the complexity of the composition. Accordingly, the available classification is -

  1. Param-anu or Dion - As stated earlier, it is the smallest part of a pudgal which is further indivisible. These dions can possess two touches (sparsh) out of the basic four; positive-negative (Snigdh-Ruksha) and hot-cold (Ushna-Sheit). Author has carefully christened them as 'dion' by their virtue of having two touches. Though these dions could be of infinite varieties depending upon the qualities they possess, however, they can be sub-categorised in four broad types depending on which two touches they inherit out of the four available -
    • Typel - combination of positive & hot
    • Type2 - combination of positive & cold
    • Type3 - combination of negative & hot
    • Type4 - combination of negative & cold

    It must be noted here that there is a restriction on having both the touches of same pair. Another important observation is that all the four broad categories mentioned above have three other attributes, namely, taste, hue and odour. Infinite varieties of dions stem out of the fact that the quantity of the attributes in them may range from one unit to infinite units.

  2. Bahu-Pradeshi Skandh or Quadons - These pudgals are one step higher in the hierarchy. Two or more dions combine to form 'multi-touch clusters' typically named as Bahu-Pradeshi Skandh in the Jain literatures. These clusters, now, can possess all the four touches thus are christened as quadons. These quadons, since are made up of multiple dions, have all the four touches, namely, positive-negative and hot-cold. Quadons could comprise a minimum of two up to a maximum of infinite dions. When there are infinite dions joining together, it is known as 'Anant-Pradeshi Skandh'. These quadons with infinite dions again come together to constitute an entity which is the first step of migration from micro towards macro world.
  3. Anant-Anant-Pradeshi Skandh or Octons - From this state onwards, the state of pudgal is such that it possesses eight touches - four primary ones, positive-negative and hot-cold, and four secondary touches namely, light-heavy and soft-hard. Out of the four secondary touches, the former two are responsible for the constitution of mass of the octons. It, thus, turns out that the Jains do not consider mass as the primary property of a pudgal, but it manifests only after the formation of octons from the relatively massless quadons and dions.

2.2. Mass of Pudgals

This brings us to the second method of classification applicable to the pudgals based on mass-

  1. Sukshma (Micro) - As far as dions and quadons are concerned, they do not have light-heavy attributes, thus are mass-less. They are so subtle that they do not obey certain principles of physics. One important example is that they are capable of attaining infinite speeds far beyond the physical limit of speed of light.

    After treating mass as essential quality of matter, even science is convinced that certain facts can be explained only if massless particles are treated as realities. Scientists are already discussing some such particles like photons, gravitons and gluons. Once the scientists are able to work out the entire set of physical laws applicable to such mass-less particles, it will revolutionise the way we understand physics. Hopefully, many enigmatic questions will be answered then.

  2. Badar (Macro) - When the pudgals achieve their third state of octons, they start manifesting mass. From this stage onwards, they come in the realm of human perceptions and predictions. Octons are, therefore, referred to as Vyavaharic parmanu also. In this state, they become comparable to the atoms as known to the modern science.

2.3.  Pudgals and Qualities of Matter

The third classification of pudgals is on the basis of the quality they impart to other pudgals to which they are attached. It is a very interesting Jain doctrine that the qualities of matter like Big-Small, Micro-Macro, Light-Heavy, Long-Short, Integrated-Fragmented, Radiant-Dark, Hot-Cold etc are nothing but the types of pudgals only. Besides, these pudgals may vary in shape also. To consider all substances and all properties as pudgals, indicates the deep insight of Jain philosophical knowledge.

2.4.  Pudgals and Association with Soul

A fourth classification is based on the various groups of octons which remain attached to the jiva (soul). In Jain Philosophy, there're eight sets of quadons and octons which are related to the bio -

  1. Set of Octons forming mortal body (Audarika Vargana)
  2. Set of Octons forming transformational body {Vaikriya Vargana)
  3. Set of Octons forming projectile body (Aharaka Vargana)
  4. Set of Octons & Quadons forming respiration (Swasoswas Vargana)
  5. Set of Quadons forming thought (Vachna Vargana)
  6. Set of Quadons forming Mind (Mana Vargana)
  7. Set of Quadons forming Radiance (Taijasa Vargana)
  8. Set of Quadons forming Karmic body (Karmic Vargana)

In Jain philosophy the relation of jiva i.e. soul and substance has been elaborately discussed. Whereas, in Vaishashik philosophy, indivisible param-anu is classified in four types only, viz.

  • Earthy
  • Aquatic
  • Irradiating
  • Aerial

This difference in classifications has given rise to Atomic Theory which is unique to the Jain school of thought.

3. Qualities of Pudgals and Sensory Perception

As is commonly known, the acquisition of information by the humans is sharply departmentalised. All the five sensory organs perform only specified tasks which are seldom interchangeable. Eyes have limits of distance and can respond to frequencies in the visible spectrum only. Ears are tuned to react to the audible frequencies between 20 to 20,000 Hertz only. They are deaf to all the under-tones and over-tones. Similarly our somatic sensation consists of the various sensory receptors that trigger the experiences of touch like, pressure, temperature, pain (including itch and tickle), and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively called proprioception). Tongue too responds to only five basic tastes - bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and savoury. Through nose we perceive odours by the sense of olfaction. Odours are also called smells, which can refer to both pleasant and unpleasant odours like, fragrance, scent or aroma, stench and stink.

Sensing of light and sound is based on vibrations at different frequencies, whereas taste and smell are chemical processes. The touch is a very complex feeling of our skin which is the largest organ of our body. All these look very specialised processes but strangely has one basic process in common.

Scientists today have found a startling fact. All the sensory organs are nothing but transducers which convert the stimulii into electrical impulses. These electrical signals travel up to the brain through an intricate mechanism of neurons and nerves where they are deciphered by the mind. This opens up interesting possibilities. In one experiment, doctors sent simulated electrical impulses directly to the brain through elctrodes fitted on the skull. The subject felt pain and ecstacy as the signals were manipulated.

3.1. Entire body an Integrated Sensory Organ (Karan)

Ancient Jain Acharyas have mentioned a unique phenomenon -Sabhinnastrotolabdhi - where the bio's entire body can be deployed as an integrated sensory organ. A bio, having attained such a maverick capability can see and taste from skin. The division of five senses within our organs collapses and it is said that the body as a whole becomes 'Karan' Can such a possibility exist? Can it be explained scientifically?

For sake of understanding this phenomenon, let us analyse the process of listening. The sound waves are received by the entire body including our ears. Ears have a specialised membrane which acts as a transducer and converts sound frequencies into electrical signal and send them to the brain. Similar action takes place in the entire body as the neurons and nerves are present in the entire body. The only difference is that the signal-to-noise ratio (intensity) of impulses is high within the ears, so brain captures those signals faster and better. For a deaf, if such a high intensity signal is absent, mind can be trained to filter the weak signals received from the skin and bones and can still listen to the sound.

Extending the argument, we can say that the light and odour encounter our entire body and not just eyes or nose. The signals are generated in the entire body but have high concentration in the eyes and nose respectively. However, if high intensity signals from the specified organs are absent, mind itself can amplify the weak signals available from the entire body. In a recent widely reported incident, a woman was able to recognise various colours simply by touching even when her eyes were blind-folded.

So, if the entire body can be trained to act as an antenna and the mind can be taught to amplify the signals captured by that antenna, Sabhinnastrotolabdhi can be attained.

4. Pudgal and Time-state

We know that the basic properties of pudgals are association and dissociation. But how fast or slow it happens or why it happens is a mystery. The fastest it can associate or dissociate is within a minimum period of one moment and in the slowest mode it can consume a maximum of infinite time. According to this Agamic statement, Mahapragya believes that the speech-pudgals of Lord Mahavira can be safely available because the sound waves are material and can remain in the unchanged form for an infinite time. Scientists are also busy looking for those apparatus with which those words assimilated in the space through which ancient music and sounds can be captured and recreated.

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  • ISBN: 13 - 978 - 81 - 89667 - 00 - 9
  • Publisher:
    Jain Vishva Bharati Institute,
    Ladnun
  • Financial Assistance:
    Sh. R. L. Parakh, Churu (Raj.)
    In memory of Late Grand Mother Smt. Sunder Devi and Mother Smt. Laxmi Devi
  • Edited and Translatated by:
    Piyush Jain, Ahmedabad
  • © Author:
    Prof. Dr. Mahavir Raj Gelra Jaipur.
  • First Edition: 2007
  • Price: Rs. 400/-
    For Foreign Countries $ 15
  • Printers:
    Sheetal Offset Printers, Jaipur

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