Microcosmology: Atom In Jain Philosophy & Modern Science: [2.3.08] Atom In Jain Philosophy - Pudgala G.P. - 4a. Pudgala Is Parinami i.e. Subject To Mutation. 4b. Pudgala Is Kriyavan i.e. Incessantly Active

Published: 01.10.2007
Updated: 02.07.2015

Pudgala - General Properties

Pudgala has the propensity for being dynamic/active. All forms of pudgala - paramanu as well as composite bodies - do not just sit around doing nothing. They are always beehives of activity.
Activity [Tat. Raj. 5/22: "Parispandanatmakah kriyetyakhyayate, itarah parinamah."] is of two kinds:

  1. Parinama (mutation) which does not involve motion in space.
  2. Kriya (motion) which involves movements in space - motion, Vibration, oscillation, etc.

Mutation (Parinama)

The word parinama means change or mutation i.e., change of one state into another. Nothing is absolutely permanent nor absolutely destructible [Syadvadamanjari: "Parinamah avasthantara-gamanam, na ca sarvatta vinasah."]

Destruction of the preceding state gives way to the birth of the succeeding state. [ Avasthitasya dravyasya purva-dharma-nirvrtau dharmantarotpattih parinamah" (Commentary by Vyas)]

Parinama, i.e. change is a universal quality of all substances including pudgala and it has been explained in different ways from different aspects in Jain scriptures. In Rajavartikam it is said that parinama is mutation of a substance, natural or otherwise, without affecting its own fundamental identity [Tat. Raj., 5-22-10.] In order to make a distinction between parinama and kriya, Siddhasena Gani has defined parinama as mutation other than vibration etc.[ Tat. Sut. Siddhasena's Commentary, 5/41.]
In the Tattvartha Sutra, Parinama is defined as the inherent nature and the corresponding activities i.e. the change in the character of attributes of each substance. [Tat. Sut., 5.42: "Tadbhdvah parinamah"] This means that parinama and paryaya are almost synonymous. Thus mutation is not different from modification.

Referring to pudgala, five parinamas, which are listed in the Bhagavati Sutra, are the main attributes of pudgala viz,

  • varna (colour),
  • rasa (taste),
  • gandha (odour),
  • sparsa (touch) and
  • samsthana (shape)[ Bhag. Sut. 8/10/467]

which render the pudgala sensuous or cognisable by senses. Ten parinamas of pudgala are listed in Parnnavana Sutra. Five of the ten are the same as in the Bhagavati Sutra and the rest are:

  • bandha (association),
  • bheda (disassociation),
  • gati (motion),
  • sabda (sound), and
  • agurulaghu (masslessness),

most of which have already been dealt with earlier.

Temporally parinama can be two-fold:

  1. beginningless and
  2. with a beginning [(a) Tat. Sut., 5/42:"...-anddirddimamsca." (b) Tat. Raj. 5/42.]

Parindma of pudgala is always with a beginning [Tat. Sut., 5/43: "Rupisvadiman"].
There are many varieties of parinamas (of pudgala) with a beginning. [Ibid., (Bhasya), 5/43.]

  • Jain Vishva Barati Institute, Ladnun, India
  • Edited by Muni Mahendra Kumar
  • 3rd Edition 1995

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Agurulaghu
  2. Bandha
  3. Bhagavati Sutra
  4. Bheda
  5. Gandha
  6. Gani
  7. Gati
  8. Kriya
  9. Paramanu
  10. Parinama
  11. Paryaya
  12. Pudgala
  13. Rasa
  14. Siddhasena
  15. Space
  16. Sparsa
  17. Sutra
  18. Tattvartha Sutra
  19. Varna
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