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# Microcosmology: Atom In Jain Philosophy & Modern Science: [2.5.5] Atom In Jain Philosophy - Paramanu - Laws of Motion and Principle of Uncertainty

Published: 03.02.2008
Updated: 13.08.2008

Paramanu
The Ultimate Indivisible Unit Of Physical Existence

Laws of Motion and Principle of Uncertainty

From the above it is clear that in some respect kriya and gati of paramanu follow definite rules, while in other respects they follow the principle of uncertainty [Tat., Raj., "Paramanorgati aniyata"]. We can summarise the definite rules as under:

1. Unless acted upon by external forces paramanu moves in a straight line (anusrenigati).
2. When acted upon by external forces paramanu may change direction and speed.
3. Jiva has no direct influence on the motion of paramanu.
4. Minimum and maximum distances travelled paramanu in one samaya are, space between two adjacent points and the entire length of the loka respectively.
5. Maximum period of inactivity (rest) is asamkhyata samaya. Maximum period of activity is asamkhyatamsa of fraction of an avalika

On the other hand, the principle of uncertainty governs the following:

1. It is uncertain, after what interval of time will a paramanu at rest will become dynamic (release energy). This time-interval may be from one samaya upto innumerable samayas. However, after an interval of innumerable samayas, it will become active for sure.
2. Similarly, it is uncertain, upto what duration of time will a dynamic paramanu continue to be active. It (the duration) could be from one samaya to an asamkhyatamsa (innumerable) portion of an avalika. But it will surely cease to be active after this maximum interval.
3. It is uncertain, which direction will a paramanu take at the commencement of motion. It can move in any possible direction.
4. It is uncertain, what type of dynamic activity will be commenced by an inactive paramanu. It may just vibrate or rotate or migrate or do all these things simultaneously.
5. It is uncertain, again what will be the intensity of a paramanu's dynamic activity: what will be its velocity - minimum or maximum or intermediate?
Sources
• Jain Vishva Barati Institute, Ladnun, India
• Edited by Muni Mahendra Kumar
• 3rd Edition 1995