Microcosmology: Atom In Jain Philosophy & Modern Science: [2.5.6] Atom In Jain Philosophy - Paramanu - Restricted And Non-Restricted Motion Of Paramanu (Pratighati And Apratighati)

Published: 04.02.2008
Updated: 13.08.2008

The Ultimate Indivisible Unit Of Physical Existence

Restricted And Non-Restricted Motion Of Paramanu (Pratighati And Apratighati)

Paramanu is generally apratighati i.e. it cannot be stopped, retained or hindered by anything (except under the condition mentioned hereinafter). At the same time, it does not cause hindrance to others.

This means that:

  1. The motion and activity of paramanu cannot be stopped or restrained by another material body or jiva. A paramanu in motion is capable of penetrating and passing through any type of obstruction in its way.
  2. A paramanu can occupy a space-point, which is already occupied by others (paramanu, composite bodies or jiva), without loosing its free State.
  3. A paramanu can commence and continue its own motion and activities irrespective of the other occupants of the same space.
  4. A paramanu can leave the occupied space without any restraint from the other occupants.

Inspite of possessing the unique quality of 'apratighatitva’ as defined above, the paramanu is subject to pratighati (hindrance) under the following conditions:

  1. Upkarabhava Pratighata (restriction due to the absence of media)
    It cannot penetrate the boundaries of loka and cross over to aloka. This is because there is no dharmastikaya (medium of motion) in aloka and without the aid of dharmastikaya, nothing can move. And so the paramanu on reaching the boundary of loka is stopped and may be thrown back.
  2. Bandhana-parinama-pratighata (restriction due to association)
    It loses its free state and the capacity for independent activity for the time being, when it is united with other paramanus i.e., so long as it remains a constituent of a composite material body.
  3. Ati-vega-pratighata (restriction due to high velocity)
    Collision between two self-activated Paramanus moving at a high velocity may cause pratighata in the motions of both.
  • Jain Vishva Barati Institute, Ladnun, India
  • Edited by Muni Mahendra Kumar
  • 3rd Edition 1995

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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Aloka
  2. Apratighati
  3. Body
  4. Dharmastikaya
  5. Jiva
  6. Loka
  7. Paramanu
  8. Paramanus
  9. Space
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