Microcosmology: Atom In Jain Philosophy & Modern Science: [2.2.05] Atom In Jain Philosophy - Pudgala - Other Important Attributes (Modes) - Integration (Bandha) And Disintegration (Bheda)

Published: 11.09.2007
Updated: 06.08.2008

3. Integration (Bandha) And Disintegration (Bheda)

The ultimate atom is the permanent basis of the physical existence. All physical objects are constituted by the ultimate atoms, which combine together to form composite bodies or aggregates. Smaller and simpler aggregates also combine together to form larger and more complex objects. Conversely, large and complex objects break up into smaller and simpler components. This synthesis or fusion and break-up or fission are eternal phenomena in the physical universe. All physical objects are the result of either integration (bandha) or disintegration (bheda).

A. The integration is of two kinds:

    1. Natural (vaisrasika)
    2. Made by animate organisms (prayogika).

The natural kind is again of two types (in respect of time):

      1. with a definite beginning and
      2. without a beginning.

Some instances of natural integration which have a beginning are: Clouds, lightning, rainbow etc.

As far as the physical existence is concerned, there is no integration without a beginning, either natural or made by organisms. The only instances of eternal or beginningless integration are

  • dharmastikaya (positive ether),
  • adharmastikaya (negative ether)
  • akasastikaya (Space),
    which are non-physical. [Satkhanda., 14/5, 6/30/29, 37/34]
Integration made by living organisms is necessarily with a definite beginning and can be divided into two kinds from another aspect:
    1. Integration of one kind of matter with another, e.g., production of chemical compounds.
    2. Combination of matter with living beings (jiva).

The last one is again of two types:

    1. karma-bandha - Bondage or Combination of karma-vargana with jiva;
    2. No-karma-bandha - Combination of other groups of pudgala with jiva in vital functions.

B. Disintegration or break-up of physical bodies is also of two kinds:

    1. Natural
    2. Made by animate organisms.

Natural disintegration is the spontaneous decay of the physical substances e.g. radioactive elements due to their own inherent structural properties. This kind also includes disintegration by natural forces such as wind, rain, flow of water, etc.

Disintegration produced by animate organisms is of many varieties depending upon the methods of division and separation. Some typical methods of break-up are:

    1. division by sawing or splitting (utkara).
    2. division by breaking into smaller pieces (khanda).
    3. division by grinding (curna).
    4. layer-by-layer separation (pratara).
    5. division by fissures (anutatika).
  • Jain Vishva Barati Institute, Ladnun, India
  • Edited by Muni Mahendra Kumar
  • 3rd Edition 1995

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Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Adharmastikaya
  2. Akasastikaya
  3. Anutatika
  4. Bandha
  5. Bheda
  6. Dharmastikaya
  7. Ether
  8. Jiva
  9. Karma-vargana
  10. Pudgala
  11. Space
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