Acharanga Bhasyam: Sūtras 40-45 : Use Of Violence (Punishment)

Published: 18.11.2010
Updated: 02.07.2015

2.40  ahoya rāo ya paritappamāṇe kālākālasamuṭṭhāῑ, saṃjogaṭṭhῑ aṭṭhālobhῑ, āluṃpe sahasakkāre, viṇiviṭṭhacitte, ettha satthe puṇo-puṇo.

Pining day and night, exerting timely and untimely, hankering for acquisitions, greedy for worldly things, addicted to theft and robbery with mind fixed on family and sensual gratification, he is virtually a weapon of violence to living beings, time and again.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 40

Previously in sūtra 3, the description concerned an aspirant endowed with fortitude. The present sutra relates to the person devoid of fortitude. He cannot abandon greed, sensuality and possession. He is, therefore, subject to suffering and misery (vide sūtra 2 and 3).

2.41  se āya-bale, se ṇāi-bale, se mitta-bale, se pecca-bale, se deva-bale, se rāya-bale, se cora-bale, se atihi-bale, se kivaṇa-bale, se samaṇa-bale.

Such person hankers after various powers: power of the body, of the kith and kin, of friends, of life hereafter, of gods, of kings, of thieves, of guests, of pitiable persons and of ascetics.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 41

A person acquires a number of power for leading his life:

  1. Power of the body —A person tainted by greed take wine and meat for nourishing his body and for amusement.
  2. Power of the kith and kin and friends - Under the impression that if his relatives and friends become powerful, he would gain strength, he desires for augmenting their power.
  3. Power of life hereafter and power of gods - He performs animal sacrifice for the next world such as heaven and for appeasing gods.
  4. Power of kings - He serves the king for livelihood and victory.
  5. Power of thieves - He serves the interest of thieves for sharing the spoils of theft.
  6. Power of guests, pitiable men, ascetics - He gives donation to guests,[1] the pitiable[2] and the monks[3] in order to gain fortune, fame and religious merit.
2.42 iccetehiṃ virūvarūvehiṃ kajjehiṃ daṃḍa-samāyāṇaṃ.

He indulges in violence for perpetrating these various deeds.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 42

One indulges in acts of violence for the sake of the ends mentioned in the jrevious sūtra.

Punishment, injury and killing are synonyms.

2.43 sapehāe bhayā kajjati.

2.44 pāva-mokkhotti maṇṇamāṇe.

2.45 aduvā āsaṃsāe.

(43-45) He indulges in such action in accord with his own thinking or out of fear; or pondering that such acts will redeem him from sins; or out of expectation of something not achieved till then.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtras 43-45

Punishment is inflicted for acquiring power. This explains the purpose of punishment. Now the four motives of the acquisition of power are enumerated:

  1. Self-reflection
  2. Fear
  3. Redemption from sin or evil, and
  4. Expectation (for the unachieved ends).

2.46     taṃ pariṇṇāya mehāvῑ ṇeva sayaṃ eehiṃ kajjehiṃ daṃḍam samāraṃbhejjā, ṇevaṇṇaṃ eehiṃ kajjehiṃ daṃḍam samāraṃbhāvejjā, ṇevaṇṇaaṃ eehiṃ kajjehiṃ daṃḍaṃ samāraṃbhaṃtaṃ samaṇujāṇejjā.

Comprehending this, the intelligent aspirant does not himself indulge in such violent activities, nor does he get them done by others, nor does he approve others indulging in them.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 46

The preceding three sutras gave the motives behind violent action. This sūtra enjoins that the violent action should not be done by oneself, got done by other, or approved of as done by others. The above is said in reference to an intelligent person. Such advice is appropriate to a person whose intellect can evaluate the merit of ahiṃsā.

2.47 esa magge āriehiṃ paveie.

This path has been revealed by the āryas.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 47

This path of non-greed, non-possessiveness and the emancipation from mineness has been laid down by the Āryas. Ārya [4] means Ācārya.

2.48 jahettha kusale novaliṃpijjāsi. - tti bemi.

In order that the prudent does not involve himself in possessiveness. Thus I say.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 48

This path has been laid down by Jinas, that is, propounded with the view that the prudent might not get involved in possessiveness.

Footnotes
1:

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2:

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3:

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4:

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Sources

Publishers:
Jain Vishwa Bharati

Ladnun- 341 306 (Raj.) India © Jain Vishva Bharti

ISBNS 1-7195-74-4

First Edition:2001

Courtesy :
Shree Chhotulal Sethia Charitable Trust Sethia House, 23/24,
Radha Bazar Street, Kolkata-700 001 (INDIA)

Printed by:
Shree Vardhaman Press
Delhi (INDIA)

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Page glossary
Some texts contain  footnotes  and  glossary  entries. To distinguish between them, the links have different colors.
  1. Ahiṃsā
  2. Body
  3. Cūrṇi
  4. Fear
  5. Greed
  6. Sutra
  7. Sūtra
  8. Violence
  9. Vṛtti
  10. Ācārya
  11. Ācārāṅga
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