Acharanga Bhasyam: Sūtras 4-26 : Wakefulness By Contemplation Of Being Unprotected

Published: 15.11.2010
Updated: 02.07.2015

2.4 appaṃ ca khalu āuṃ ihamegesiṃ māṇavāṇaṃ, taṃ jahā - soya-pariṇṇāṇehiṃ parihāyamāṇehiṃ, cakkhu-pariṇṇāṇehiṃ parihāyamāṇehiṃ, ghāṇa-pariṇṇāṇehiṃ parihāyamāṇehiṃ, rasa-pariṇṇāṇehiṃ parihāyamāṇehiṃ, phāsa-pariṇṇāṇehiṃ parihāyamāṇehiṃ,

2.5 abhikkaṃtaṃ ca khalu vayam saṃpehāe.

2.6 tao se egayā mūῑḍhabhāvaṃ jaṇayaṃti.

(4-6) Short indeed is the life-span of some people, with their organs of ear, eye, smell, taste and touch deteriorating. Pondering over the process of ageing (one gets worried) and then (due to the deteriorating condition of the senses) produce stupefication.

Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtras 4-6

Some people are long-lived and some are short-lived when we think of a shorter span of life, we feel utility of our strivings for accumulating posessions. This Sūtra relates to the reflection on short life. When the capacity of the five sense organs deteriorates, there occurs end of life prematurely.

The scientists[1] assert that a person dies when the cells of his brain wither away. The centres of sense organs are situated in the cerebellum. The implication is that the power of the sense-organs deteriorates on the deterioration of those centres. In that state, there occurs pre-mature death. There are millions of nerves connected to the sense-organs like the ear. Instantaneous death is likely to take place on injury to those centres.[2]

The life-span has three stages: the first, the middle and the last.[3] The first state runs into the middle and the middle ends up in the last. The decay of the senses starts in the middle stage.[4] An appreciation of this process of decay produces an inclination to give up attachment or the feeling of 'mine'-ness.

With the advance of the middle age or at the outset of the last stage of life, the senses become dull; for instance, one becomes deaf or hard of hearing. Similar is the state of the other senses.

The alternative meaning is that along with the decay of his senses, a person becomes more and more attached to the objects, and mostly in old age, he reaches the stage of stupor.

    2.7 jehiṃ vā saddhiṃ saṃvasati te vā ṇaṃ egayā ṇiyagā taṃ puvviṃ parivayaṃti, so vā te ṇiyage pacchā parivaejjā.

    2.8 nālaṃ te tava tāṇāe vā, saraṇāe vā. tumaṃ pi tesiṃ nālaṃ tāṇāe vā, saraṇāe vā.

    (7-8) Sometimes his own family members rebuke him or in turn he rebukes them. Neither do they protect him or offer him shelter nor can he protect them or offer them shelter.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtras 7,8

    Now there are Sūtra concerning the reflection on lack of refuge. Among the people with whom he is closely tied, there are many who are selfish. Some close relatives with whom he lives accuse him in his old age, when their selfish ends are not fulfilled and that old person also, being rebuked by his own kith and kin, indulges in rebuking them. This mutual incrimination also acts as the 'support indicating Sūtra' in regard to renouncing the attitude of 'mine'-ness.

    There are, however, people who do not speak ill of old people, but are not able to protect them against the pain of ageing, illness and death. The Sūtra explains such situation in the statement "Neither are they able to protect you and provide you shelter, nor are you able to do so to them."

    2.9 se ṇa hassāe, ṇa kiḍḍāe, ṇa ratῑe, ṇa vibhūsāe.

    He is not fit for laughing, not frolicking nor sexual enjoyment, nor adornment.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 9

    The reflection on the state of ageing also lends support to the severance of mine'-ness: an old man is incapable of laughing or frolicking, jumping, swimming and running and other athletic feats; nor is he fit enough to enjoy sexually, nor is it befitting for him to adorn himself.

    2.10 iccevaṃ samuṭṭhie ahovihārāe.

    Pondering thus (in this state of old age) some aspirant wakes up of for leading the wonderful life of self-restraint.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 10

    In the first three sūtras of this chapter, the inborn psyche of the common man is indicated. Thereafter, the sūtras (4-9) concerning reflection are given. On the change of the psyche, resulting from reflection as the support, the aspirant develops competence to lead a life of self-restraint.

    The life-style of the people bound by sensual objects, possessions etc. is a commonplace. But the style of those who have cut those bonds strike wonder in the commoner. This is why such kind of self-restraint is called 'wonderful'.

    2.11 aṃtaraṃ ca khalu imaṃ saṃpehāe - dhῑre muhuttamavi ṇo pamāyae.

    Pondering over the internal state of the self, the resolute aspirant should not be non-vigilant for a single moment.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 11

    Having comprehended this inner self,[5] the wise should not live attached to the sensum and the greed which is the source of passions. The idea that the right perception of the inner self is possible only or the human life lends support to the state of wakefulness.

    2.12 vayo accei jovvaṇaṃ va.

    Age and youth are fading away.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 12

    Life and youth are running out. They are running after old age and death. The individual is dying every moment continuously without halt. Youth also is fading away every moment. It is life-span and youth that make the practice of discipline possible. The decrepit body that decays due to old age is not capable of following the discipline. This idea is the pivot of wakefulness.

    2.13 jῑvie iha je pamattā. 2.14 se haṃtā chettā bhettā luṃpittā viluṃpittā uddavittā uttāsaittā. 2.15 akaḍaṃ karissāmitti maṇṇamāṇe.

    (13-15) Those who are non-vigilant in this life indulge in injuring, cutting, piercing, beating, massacring, killing and terrorising, thinking that they will do something extraordinary not yet done by others.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtras 13-15

    Those who are not wakeful in their lives, that is, indulge in sensa and greed, the source of passions, are the people who commit injury to life.

    Gratified with the sense and greed, one engages himself in injuring, cutting, striking, destroying, massacring and terrorising.

    In this concluding Sutra the mental proclivity for earning wealth and power is shown. "I shall achieve what has never been achieved by others," with such belief in mind, a person sets about accumulating wealth, power and position. It is a self-actualisation motive, to use a psychological term.[6]

    2.16 jehiṃ vā saddhiṃ saṃvasati te vā ṇaṃ egayā ṇiyagā taṃ puwiṃ poseṃti, so vā te niyage pacchā posejjā.

    2.17 nālaṃ te lava tāṇāe vā, saraṇāe vā. tumaṃpi tesiṃ nālaṃ tāṇāe vā, saraṇāe vā.

    (16-17) Sometimes his own family members nourish him or in turn he nourishes them. Neither do they protect him or offer him shelter nor can he protect them or offer them shelter.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtras 16,17

    This is another set of sutras that support the reflection on 'lack of refuge'. These sūtras are to be explained just like sutras 7 and 8 with this exception: The close relatives nourish a person in his childhood or state of adversity. Subsequently, when the latter earns fortune, he looks after them.

    2.18 uvāiya-seseṇa vā sannihl-sannicao kajjai, ihamegesiṃ asamjayāṇaṃ bhoyaṇāe.

    A person bound by the tie of 'mine'-ness earns fortune that he enjoys himself. By means of what he saves, he acquires goods for storing and hoarding for the use of his non-restrained relatives, sons, daughters, etc.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 18

    Storing - Storing up edibles that perish quickly.
    Hoarding - Hoarding of semi-perishable commodity like corn, clarified butter etc.

    2.19 tao se egayā roga-samuppāyā samuppajjaṃti.

    Then sometimes he is attacked by various diseases.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtra 19

    Some people earn fortune, but are not able to enjoy it. The reason is that they are attacked by illness that spoils their purpose. This is explained here.

    2.20 jehiṃ vā saddhiṃ saṃvasati te vā ṇaṃ egayā niyagā taṃ puvviṃ pariharaṃti, so vā te ṇiyage pacchā pariharejjā.

    2.19 nālaṃ te tava tāṇāe vā, saraṇāe vā. tuṃaṃpi tesiṃ nālaṃ tāṇāe vā, saraṇāe vā.

    (20,21) Sometimes his own family members leave him or in turn he leaves them. Neither do they protect or offer him shelter nor can he protect or offer them shelter.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtras 20,21

    Sometimes the relatives whom he lives with, in the ailing condition, leave him earlier, or he himself abandons them, being disgusted for lack of service expected of them. Some relatives do not abandon the sick person out of affection. But they cannot relieve him of his ailment.

    This is summed up thus: They are not capable of saving you or giving you shelter: you also cannot save them or give them shelter.

    2.22 jāṇittu dukkhaṃ patteyaṃ sāyaṃ.

    2.23 aṇabhikkaṃtaṃ ca khalu vayaṃ saṃpehāe.

    2.24 khanam jāṇāhipaṃḍie.

    2.25 jāva soyā-pannāṇā aparihῑṇā, jāva ṇetta-paṇṇāṇā aparihῑṇā, jāva ghāṇa-pannāṇā aparihῑṇā, jāva jῑha-pannāṇā aparihῑṇā, jāva phāsa-pannāṇā aparihῑṇā.

    2.26  iccetehiṃ virūvarūvehiṃ paṇṇāṇehiṃ aparihῑṇehiṃ āyaṭṭhaṃ sammaṃ samaṇuvāsijjāsi.—tti bemi.

    (22-26) Understanding that the pleasure and pain are self-earned and realising that the proper time has not passed off, O wise man! know the proper moment till the power of hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting and touching have not decayed. While his various senses are intact, he should properly cultivate one's own well-being.

    Bhāṣyaṃ Sūtras 22-26

    Pain and pleasure are earned by the individual alone. None also can share them with him. Comprehending this truth, one should understand one's own loneliness and helplessness.

    The objects enkindle greed which instigates one to amass fortune and also generates family attachment. But in spite of amassing fortune and strengthening the family tie, there is no security of protection or shelter. So one should get up for the marvellous life of self-restraint. "The not-by gone, that is, the first and second, stages of life, is the occasion for renunciation." This one should realize. The renunciation is commendable in any of the three stages of life[7] but it is easier in the not by gone, that is, the first and the second stages. This is pointed out in this sūtra. At this stage the problems of incrimination (sūtra 7), maintenance (sūtra 16), abandonment (sūtra 20) of the family would not arise. This explains the appropriateness of the first and second stages of life for undertaking renunciation.

    'O wise man! realize the opportunity and the proper moment - the not-by gone stage of life is the moment suitable for the marvellous act of renunciation'. So long as the sense-organs are competent, it is an opportune moment. The favourable place, time, star, constellation etc. and the destruction-cum-subsidence of karma too determine the opportune moment. One should consider proper moment from all angles of vision.

    Now the Sūtra (26) defines the proper moment. One should engage oneself in the marvellous act of renunciation before one's ear, eye, nose, tongue and skin start decaying.

    Footnotes
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    Sources

    Publishers:
    Jain Vishwa Bharati

    Ladnun- 341 306 (Raj.) India © Jain Vishva Bharti

    ISBNS 1-7195-74-4

    First Edition:2001

    Courtesy :
    Shree Chhotulal Sethia Charitable Trust Sethia House, 23/24,
    Radha Bazar Street, Kolkata-700 001 (INDIA)

    Printed by:
    Shree Vardhaman Press
    Delhi (INDIA)

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