The Jaina Doctrine of Karma And The Science Of Genetics ► [3.1] Classification Of Karma ► 6. Nāma Karma (103 sub groups)

Posted: 05.04.2009

Nāma Karma (103 sub groups)

Nāma karma has 103 sub divisions as follow:

    1. 14 sub divisions which are called 'collective karmas' (Pinda prakṛti nāma karma) the collective stuff of the various karmas.
    2. 8 sub divisions which are called pratyeka prakṛti karmas.
    3. 10 sub divisions is a collection called trasa daśaka.
    4. 10 sub divisions which is a collection called "sthāvara daśaka".

    This gives only 42 sub divisions.
    But the first 14 sub divisions are further sub divided into a total of 75 sub groups called 75 pinda prakṛti nama karmas.[53]

Group one - Four gati nāma karma (destiny):

    1. Devagati nāma karma - this karma brings the living being into the state of existence, known as deva state. It is a pleasurable state in a fine subtle body, perhaps comparable to the christian heaven. It is a state in which pleasure preponderates over pain, there is some pain but mostly pleasure.
    2. Naraka gati nāma karma - This karma brings the living being into the naraka state where there is no pleasure at all but pain all the time, perhaps comparable to the christian hell. But it is not everlasting. It comes to an end.
    3. Manu·ya gati nāma karma - This karma brings the living being into the human state, or ordinary human life.
    4. iryanca gati nāma karma - This karma brings the living being into the animal state. Animals are like insect, fish, bird, vegetable or mineral life (Tiryanca).

Group Two - Jāti nāma karma (classes of beings)[54]:

  1. Ekendriya nāma karma - Due to this karma, the living being has only one sense - the sense of touch.
  2. Dwiendriya nāma karma - Due to this karma, the living being has only two senses - the sense of touch and taste.
  3. Triendriya nāma karma - Due to this karma, the living being has only three senses - the sense of touch, taste and smell.
  4. Caturendriya nāma karma - Due to this karma, the living being has only four senses -the sense of touch, taste, smell and sight.
  5. Paṅcendriya nāma karma - Due to this karma, the living being has all five senses - the sense of touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing.[55]

 

Group three - Śarīra nāma karma (bodies):

    1. Audārika śarīra nāma karma - Due to this karma, the living being has an ordinary physical body, that we actually see. this body is created out of gross pudgals. The human beings and tiryanca have this body.
    2. Vaikriya śarīra nāma karma - Due to this karma, the living being has a subtle body which is changeable, it can be large and then small, have one shape and then another. The heavenly and hellish beings have this type of body.
    3. Āhāraka śarīra nāma karma - Great munis, who have mastered the 14 pūrvas can develop this body. They use this body to visit to a nearbye Tīrthankara to clear their doubts. The size of body they create is of one hand.
    4. Taijasa śarira nāma karma - This karma gives a body which consumes food.
    5. Karmaṇa śarīra nāma karma - This karma gives a body which is made up of eight main karma (mūla prakṛti) with 158 sub groups all put together. It is changing every moment.[56]

    Of these bodies, we human beings, have audarika śarīra, taijasa śarīra and karmaṇa śarīra. We may or may not have the subtle vaikriya body while only the very spiritually advance munis have the āharaka body.

 

Group Four - three Upāṅga nāma karma (main and secondary parts of body):

    1. Audarika upāṅga nāma karma - Due to this karma, the limbs and organs of the physical body are formed. Internal and external organs, arms, legs, ears, lungs etc. are also formed.
    2. Vaikriya upāṅga nāma karma - Forms like limbs and organs of the subtle or vaikriya body.
    3. Āhārak upāṅga nāma karma - Produces the limbs of the āhārak body. The Taijasa and the kārmaṇa bodies do not have limbs or organs.

 

Groups Five: Bandhana nāma karma (binding of new body particles to old ones):

    1. Audārika bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of the gross body together.
    2. Vaikriya bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of the subtle body together.
    3. Āharaka bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of the āharaka body together.
    4. Taijasa bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of the taijasa body together.
    5. Kārmaṇa bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of kārmaṇa body together.
    6. Audarika - taijasa bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of audarika and taijasa bodies together.
    7. Audarika-kārmaṇa bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of audarika and kārmaṇa bodies together.
    8. Vaikriya-taijasa bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of vaikriya and taijasa bodies together.
    9. Vaikriya kārmaṇa bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of vaikriya and kārmaṇa bodies together.
    10. Āharaka-taijasa bandhana nāma karma - This binds the different parts of āharak and taijasa bodies together.
    11. Āharaka kārmaṇa bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of āharaka and karmaṇa bodies together.
    12. Audarika-taijasa kārmaṇa bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of audarika, taijasa and kārmaṇa bodies together.
    13. Vaikriya-taijasa-kārmaṇa bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of vaikriya, taijasa and kāmraṇa bodies together.
    14. Āharaka taijasa-kāmaṇa bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of āharaka, taijasa and kārmaṇa bodies together.
    15. Taijasa-kārmaṇa bandhana nāma karma - This karma binds the different parts of taijasa and kārmaṇa bodies together.

 

Group Six - Five saṅgathana nāma karma (organizing particles of various body parts):

This karma organizes the various organs like teeth in their proper places, with pudgalas that can form body in a definite proportion and in a particular organization for following five bodies.

  1. Audārika saṅghatana nāma karma.
  2. Vairkiya saṅghatana nāma karma.
  3. Āharaka saṅghatana nāma karma.
  4. Taijasa saṅghatana nāma karma.
  5. Kārmaṇa saṅghatana nāma karma.

 

Group Seven - Six saṁhanana nāma karma (firmness of joints):

This karma gives joints to body.

  1. Vajra ṛṣabh saṁhanana nāma karma - This karma gives the strongest joint. The ends of the bones are hooked into each other, there is a sort of bolt or pin through the hook, and the whole joint is covered with an envelop of tissues. Vajra means the pin.
  2. Ṛṣabh nārācā saṁhana nāma karma - The joint is same as S.no. 38 except there is no vajra (pin). This is given by this karma.
  3. Nārācā saṁhanana nāma karma - This karma gives the joint same as S.no. 39 except only the envelop of tissues is omitted. Only the hook remains.
  4. Ardha nāracā saṁhanana nāma karma - This karma gives the joint in which bones are one end hooked into each other, and pinned, with no envelop. While at the other end, the bone is simply straight and pinned.
  5. Kilikā saṁhanana nāma karma - This karma gives the bones straight at each end nailed. No hook and no envelop exist.
  6. Sevārta saṁhanana nāma karma - This karma gives a joint where the bones simply touch, or are in sockets. Most of our joints are like this, it is the weakest and worst form of joints.[57]

The teaching is that mokṣa can only be achieved by those who have ṛṣabhanārācā saṁhanana nāma karma kind of joint. This does not mean that we should not pursue the goal to attain mokṣa. If we do everything properly in this life then we can get the right body and joints in the next life.

 

Group 8 - Saṁsthana nāma karma (stature determining):

    1. Samacaturasra Saṁsthana nāma karma - (asra means angle) Because of this karma entire body is symmetrical.
    2. Nyagrodhaparimaṇdal saṁsthana nāma karma - Because of this karma the upper part (above the navel) of the body is symmetrical and the lower part is not symmetrical.
    3. Sādi saṁsthana nāma karma - Because of this karma, the lower part of body is symmetrical, but the upper part is not symmetrical.
    4. Kubja saṁsthana nāma karma - The trunk is deformed because of this karma. While the legs, arms, face, neck are symmetrical. For example hump back.
    5. Vāmana Saṁsthana nāma karma - Because of this karma, arms and legs are defective, while the trunk is all straight. For example - dwarf.
    6. Hunda Saṁsthana nāma karma - Because of this karma, everything is non-symmetrical. The bodies of animals, fishes, birds, insects come under this class. The human form is considered as symmetrical form.[58]

All living beings take birth in the womb of mother may have any one kind of these bodies from S.no. 44 to 48 and those living beings who do not take birth in the mother's womb can have only the hunda body (samūrcchan birth) S.no. 49.

 

Group 9 - Five Varṇa nāma karma:

    1. Because of this karma the body of living being is black in colour.
    2. Because of this karma the body of living being is blue in colour.
    3. Because of this karma the body of living being is yellow in colour.
    4. Because of this karma the body of living being is red in colour.
    5. Because of this karma the body of living being is white (fair) in colour.

Of the above colours, the black and blue are inferior (though in respect of things other than the colour the person may be superior) and the yellow, red and white are superior colours. It does not mean that a person is inferior or superior in one particular colour than he/she is therefore in superior in all. A white man may be a thief or a murderer and a black man may be virtous and spiritually advanced.

 

Group 10 - Two Gandha nāma karma (odours):

    1. Surabhi gandha nāma karma - This karma makes the general odour of the body pleasant.
    2. Durabhi gandha nāma karma - This karma makes the general odour of the body unpleasant.

 

Group 11 - Five Rasa nāma karma (Tastes):

    1. Tikta rasa nāma karma - This karma gives the body hot-pepper like taste.
    2. Katu rasa nāma karma - This karma gives the body bitter taste.
    3. Kaṣaya rasa nāma karma - This karma gives the body astringent taste.
    4. Amla rasa nāma karma - This karma gives the body sour taste.
    5. Madhura rasa nāma karma - This karma gives the body sweet taste.

 

Group 12 - Sparśa nāma karma (touch):

    1. Guru sparśa nāma karma - This karma gives the body feel heavy.
    2. Laghu sparśa nāma karma - This karma makes the body feel light.
    3. Mṛdu sparśa nāma karma - This karma makes the body feel smooth.
    4. Karkaśa sparśa nāma karma - This karma makes the body feel rough.
    5. Śīta sparśa nāma karma - This karma makes the body feel cold.
    6. Uṣṇa sparśa nāma karma - This karma makes the body feel warm.
    7. Snigadha sparśa nāma karma - This karma makes the body feel oily.
    8. Rukṣa sparśa nāma karma - This karma makes the body feel dry.

 

Group 13 - Anupurvi nāma karma (direction to next destination):

    1. Deva anupurvi nāma karma - This karma decides the direction of living being, after his/her death, towards the place of the devas. There must be some force which causes the person at the time of death to travel in the right direction to reach his/her next destination whether to any planet or elsewhere, and this karma does that.
    2. Naraka anupurvi nāma karma - This karma determines the direction of living being at death towards the place of narakas.
    3. Manuṣya anupurvi nāma karma - This karma determines the right direction of travel at death for the entry to go to the place of the human beings.
    4. Tirynaca anupurvi nāma karma - This karma determines the direction of the living being at death towards the place of animals, birds, insects, plants etc.

 

Group 14 - Two Vihāyogati nāma karma (Gatis):

    1. Praśasta vihayogati nāma karma - This karma makes the living being to move in a pleasant manner.
    2. Apraśasta vihayogati nāma karma - This karma makes living being to move in a unpleasant manner.

     This completes the first batch of 14 groups of "collective personality" or pinda prakṛti nāma karma.

Now follow three more batches namely:

      1. Eight pratyeka prakṛti nama karma.
      2. 10 trasa daśaka.
      3. 10 sthāvar daśaka.

 

Group 15 - Pratyeka prakṛti nāma karma - eight:

    1. Agurulaghu nāma karma - Due to this karma, the body is neither heavy or light. It acquires agurulaghutā.
    2. Upghāta nāma karma - Due to this karma we get organs that cause trouble to us. For example: a small tongue, a small tongue beneath the tongue, ugly teeth, teeth over teeth and the sixth finger etc.
    3. Praghāt nāma karma - Due to this karma, the jīva gets such an appearance that other feel impressed by the luster of his face.
    4. Śwācchwāsa nāma karma - Due to this karma we acquire the power of inhaling and exhaling air.
    5. Ātapa nama karma - Due to this karma the jīva gets such a body that though it is cold, it gives heat and light to other like - the sun.
    6. Udyoth nāma karma - Due to this karma, the soul acquires a body which gives out a cool, gleaming light like - moonlight.
    7. Nirmāṇa nāma karma - This karma produces organs in the body in their proper places like a carpenter.
    8. Tirthankara nāma karma or jina nāma karma - Due to this karma, the soul is decorated with the eight kinds of greatness and in that state she/he will get an opportunity for establishing and disseminating the dharmaśāsana.[59]

 

Group 16 - Ten trasa (moving) darsaka:

On account of its emergence, the jiva attains the following:

  1. Trasa nāma karma - This karma gives a body that can move away from the sun etc. and can voluntarily move about.
  2. Bādara nāma karma - This karma gives a body that can be seen.
  3. Paryāpta nāma karma - Because of this karma, one gets the power of reaching upto one's proper limits.
  4. Sthira nāma karma - By this karma, jīva gets fixed and firm organs like head, bones, teeth etc.
  5. Pratyeka nāma karma - By this karma each jīva gets a separate body.
  6. Śubha nāma karma - This gives auspicious organs above the navel.
  7. Sobhājña nāma karma - Because of this karma, the soul is liked by others even without helping others.
  8. Saswara nāma karma - By this karma one gets a sweet voice.
  9. Adeya nāma karma - Because of this karma, the words of a soul though not fire and showy are understood by others.
  10. Yaśa nāma karma - Because of this karma, the soul gets the adoration from others.[60]

 

Group 17 - 10 Sthāvar (unmoving) daśaka:

On account of its emagence, the jīva attains the following:

  1. Sthāvar nama karma - When a body cannot move about, it is the result of sthāvara nāma karma.
  2. Śūkṣma nāma karma - This karma gives a subtle body that cannot be seen even if many bodies put together.
  3. Aparyāpta nāma karma - Because of this karma, one does not get the power of reaching upto one's proper limits.
  4. Sādhāraṇa nāma karma - By this karma, countless jīvas share one body.
  5. Asthīra nāma karma - By this karma, jiva gets unstable or moving organs like tongue.
  6. Aśubha nāma karma - This karma gives inauspicious organs below the navel.
  7. Durbhājña nāma karma - Because of this karma, the jīva is disliked by others though he/she may help others.
  8. Duswara nāma karma - By this karma, one gets a sour voice.
  9. Anādeya nāma karma - By this karma, the words of a jīva are not understood by others.
  10. Apayaśa nāma karma - Because of this karma, the jīva does not get adortion from others.[61]

 

Nama karma gene

There is a growing evidence that genes play an important role in language.[62] This can be compared with body nāma karma. One due is the large number of genes that have been identified for mental retardation.[63] This can be compared with body nāma karma. Body weight depends upon a simple, unaltered balance: caloric intake verses energy expenditure, how much is eaten verses how much is burned. If you eat more than you need to live, you gain weight: eat fewer calories than you burn, and weight drops. Genes play a role in every part of the process: what makes us start eating, how we stop and how calories are burned.[64] This is compared with body nāma karma. This was the clear proof that leptin was a key player in human weight control, just as in mice.[65] This can be compared with body nāma karma. A gene called myostatin control muscle growth.[66] This can be compared with body nāma karma.

There are various theories about why being left handed is not more easily inherited. Such as blaming it on early brain injury, but an alternative explanation is that there is a single "handedness gene" that only affects people. According to this model, advocated by the English Scientist I. Chris memanus, individuals with two copies of the "sinistral gene" and one copy of the "dextral gene" have a 25% chance of being left handed, and people with two copies of the "dextral gene" are almost always right handed. This model remains to be tested, but it should not be hard to final several hundred pairs of left handed siblings. Finding such a gene could offer new insights into one of the most fundamental and uniquely human aspects of how brains are organized.[67] This is comparable with body nāma karma.

Footnotes:
[53]
[54]
[55]
[56]
[57]
[58]
[59]
[60]
[61]
[62]
[63]
[64]
[65]
[66]
[67]
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Doctoral Thesis, JVBU